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CHAPTER NINE. Flaps and Skin Grafts

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Among the following, which one best describes the environment needed for a free tissue transfer (a free flap) to survive?

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a. A well-vascularized wound bed

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b. An adequate arterial inflow and venous outflow

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c. A sterile environment

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d. An adequate arterial inflow without venous outflow

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e. A maximum ratio length to width of 2:1

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The Mathes and Nahai classification of muscle flaps describes a type III muscle flap as

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a. Composed of only one dominant pedicle

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b. Composed of one or more vascular pedicle(s) and minor pedicle(s)

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c. Composed of two dominant pedicles

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d. Composed of segmental vascular pedicles

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e. Composed of one dominant and secondary segmental pedicles

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Which of the following best describes a delay phenomenon in a flap?

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a. A transposition of a 3 × 3 cm skin paddle with a 45° angle

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b. A free latissimus dorsi flap for a scalp defect

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c. Insertion of an expander implant under the pectoralis major muscle during breast reconstruction

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d. A pedicle TRAM flap after ligation of both deep inferior epigastric arteries 2 weeks earlier

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e. A deltopectoral flap performed immediately after a neck mass removal

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Which of the following is an indicator of venous congestion?

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a. A capillary refill time of 3 seconds

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b. A hypothermic flap

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c. A hypoperfused flap

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d. A pale or light pink flap

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e. A swollen bluish flap

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Which of the following best describes a split-thickness skin graft (STSG)?

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a. A graft composed of epidermis and some dermis

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b. A graft composed of only epidermis

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c. A graft composed of only dermis

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d. A graft that leaves a donor site to be closed primarily

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e. A graft that will never contract after being harvested

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