Skip to Main Content




  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)




  • 590.9 Infection of kidney, unspecified

  • Associated ICD-9-CM PT diagnoses/treatment diagnosis that may be directly related to urogenital (UG) disorders or consequences from bed rest, surgery, or inactivity or directly related to UG disorders specifically

    • 315.4 Developmental coordination disorder

    • 718.45 Contracture of joint, pelvic region and thigh

    • 719.70 Difficulty in walking

    • 728.2 Muscular wasting and disuse atrophy

    • 728.89 Other disorders of muscle, ligament, and fascia

    • 729.9 Other and unspecified disorders of soft tissue

    • 780.7 Malaise and fatigue

    • 781.2 Abnormality of gait

    • 782.3 Edema

    • 786.0 Dyspnea and respiratory abnormalities

    • 786.05 Shortness of breath




  • N15.9 Renal tubulo-interstitial disease, unspecified




  • As of June, 2014, the APTA Guide to Physical Therapist Practice does not include practice patterns for organ system pathology; therefore, the associated or secondary musculoskeletal, cardiovascular/pulmonary, or potential neuromuscular patterns would be indicated.1



A 29-year-old woman complains of a 2-day history of dysuria, urgency, and urinary frequency. She denies the use of medications and has no significant past medical history. On examination, her blood pressure (BP) is 100/70 mm Hg, heart rate (HR) 90 beats per minute, and temperature 98°F (36.6°C). The thyroid is normal on palpation. The heart and lung examinations are normal. She does not have back tenderness. The abdomen is nontender and without masses. The pelvic examination reveals normal female genitalia. There is no adnexal tenderness or masses.2




  • Can occur in any component of the urinary system: Upper UTIs (kidneys and ureters) and lower UTIs (urethra and bladder)

  • Sudden onset of confusion in elderly without fever

  • Severe pain with or without attempts at urination in males and females or no pain at all, especially in the elderly and children

  • Changes in color, volume (decrease), and odor of urine

  • Most common in bladder and urethra

    • Cystitis

    • Urethritis

  • If spread to kidneys, symptoms more severe, and pain is located in the lower back with possible tenderness to palpation of the kidneys

Essentials of Diagnosis

  • Difficulty urinating

  • Painful urination

  • Malodorous urine

  • Pelvic pain in women

  • Rectal pain in men

  • Change in color of urine

  • Positive cultures

General Considerations

  • Diagnosis for more occult problems may take time and require intensive medical diagnostic testing

  • May refer pain to back, pelvic region, or rectal area (men)

  • May result in secondary problems such as

    • Aerobic capacity and muscle-endurance impairment

    • Sarcopenia

    • Weakness/impaired muscle performance

    • Musculoskeletal problems

    • Neuromuscular problems

  • May mimic colon cancer or tumors, irritable bowel, colitis, or gynecological problems in females such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or ectopic pregnancies

  • May or may not be associated with fever


3-D reconstruction. Three-dimensional postprocessed volume-rendered image of the urinary tract ...

Want remote access to your institution's subscription?

Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.


Create a Free MyAccess Profile

* Required Fields

Note: If you have registered for a MyAccess profile on any of the Access sites, you can use the same MyAccess login credentials across all sites.

Passwords must be between 6 and 40 characters long (no whitespace), cannot contain characters #, &, and must contain:
  • at least one lowercase letter
  • at least one uppercase letter
  • at least one digit

Benefits of a MyAccess Profile:

  • Remote access to the site off-campus on any device
  • Notification of new content via custom alerts
  • Bookmark your favorite content such as chapters, figures, tables, videos, cases and more
  • Save and download images to PowerPoint
  • Self-Assessment quizzes saved for quick review
  • Custom Curriculum access for both instructors and learners

Subscription Options

AccessPhysiotherapy Full Site: One-Year Subscription

Connect to the full suite of AccessPhysiotherapy content and resources including interactive NPTE review, more than 500 videos, Anatomy & Physiology Revealed, 20+ leading textbooks, and more.

$595 USD
Buy Now

Pay Per View: Timed Access to all of AccessPhysiotherapy

24 Hour Subscription $34.95

Buy Now

48 Hour Subscription $54.95

Buy Now

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.