PREFERRED PRACTICE PATTERNS1
6C: Impaired Ventilation, Respiration/Gas Exchange, and Aerobic Capacity/Endurance Associated with Airway Clearance Dysfunction
6F: Impaired Ventilation and Respiration/Gas Exchange Associated with Respiratory Failure
Diagram of the anatomic relations of head and neck structures and distribution of the indigenous flora. (Reproduced with permission from Todd JK. Bacteriology and clinical relevance of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal cultures. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1984;3:159.)
A 10-year-old girl is brought to her pediatrician’s office complaining of headache for the past 2 weeks. Her mother had taken the girl to an optometrist, and her vision was normal. The patient states that she has been in good health and that she received a cat as a birthday present 1 month previously. On examination, she has a normal temperature, the tympanic membranes appear normal, and her throat is clear. There is some tenderness of the right cheek and over the right orbit.2
Nonspecific term for acute infections in the nose, paranasal, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi
Viruses are the main cause
Influenza is a systemic illness involving the respiratory tract that is separate from upper respiratory tract infections (URI or UTI)
Spread by aerosol, droplet, hand-to-hand contact
Antibiotics have no-to-limited role in the treatment of the common cold or URI3
Acute sinusitis with opacification of the maxillary sinus. (Reproduced with permission from Brunicardi FC, Andersen D, Billiar T, et al. Schwartz’s Principles of Surgery. 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2004.)
Algorithm for acute nasal congestion and rhinosinusitis. (From Hay WM et al. Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics. 21st ed. www.accessmedicine.com. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.)
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