Skip to Main Content

++

CONDITION/DISORDER SYNONYM

++

  • Contracted toe

++

ICD-9-CM CODES

++

  • 735.4 Other hammer toe (acquired)

  • 755.66 Other congenital anomalies of toes

++

ICD-10-CM CODES

++

  • M20.40 Other hammer toe(s) (acquired), unspecified foot

  • Q66.89 Other specified congenital deformities of feet

++

PREFERRED PRACTICE PATTERN

++

  • 4E: Impaired Joint Mobility, Motor Function, Muscle Performance, and Range of Motion (ROM) Associated with Localized Inflammation1

++

PATIENT PRESENTATION

Patient is a 25-year-old soccer player. For fun he was kicking the ball around barefoot and stubbed his toes into the ground when trying to kick the ball. The patient had immediate pain and x-rays were negative for fractures. He presents to the clinic with the third toe bent with flexion of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and DIP joints. The patient has swelling and cannot wear a closed toe shoe.

++

KEY FEATURES

++
Description
++

  • Toe bent with flexion of PIP

  • Shortened flexor muscles, fascia, tendons

  • Most commonly affects second toe, though may also affect third or fourth

  • May alter mechanics during push-off phase of gait

++
Essentials of Diagnosis
++

  • Diagnosis usually made by clinical examination or X-ray

  • May be independent diagnosis, not associated with disease process

++
General Considerations
++

  • Chronic condition developed over time with callus on top of the joint

  • Inflammation around joint

  • Altered joint position2

  • Evaluation of footwear

  • Distinguished from claw toe, which includes hyperextension (dorsiflexed) of the MTP joint with flexion (plantarflexed) of the PIP joint, DIP is plantarflexed

  • Distinguished from mallet toe, which includes neutral MTP and PIP joint with flexion (plantarflexion) of only the DIP

++
Demographics
++

  • Infants, congenital

  • Children who wear shoes they have outgrown and are too small

  • Adults

    • Poor footwear: Improper fit, pointed toe, narrow forefoot, high heels

    • Dancers at higher risk

++

CLINICAL FINDINGS

++

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

  • Pain in metatarsal with walking

  • Corn on top of toe

  • Decreased extension or dorsiflexion of toe

  • Pain, redness around joint

  • Callus under metatarsal head

  • Difficulty finding shoes with proper fit

  • Limited motion of MTP joint

++
FIGURE 210-1

Multiple hammertoes, hallux flexus, onychauxis, residual of rheumatoid arthritis, and degenerative changes. (From Halter JB et al: Hazzardís Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, 6th edition. www.accessmedicine.com. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Graphic Jump Location
++
Functional Implications
++

  • Pain with standing

  • Pain in affected toe with ambulation

  • Inability to wear stiff shoes

  • Need to wear shoes with large toe box to accommodate bunion, corn, flexion, and hypomobile PIP

  • Altered gait pattern and mechanical issues of the forefoot

++
Possible Contributing Causes
++

  • Improper footwear

  • Commonly in conjunction with ...

Want remote access to your institution's subscription?

Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.

Ok

About MyAccess

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus.

Subscription Options

AccessPhysiotherapy Full Site: One-Year Subscription

Connect to the full suite of AccessPhysiotherapy content and resources including interactive NPTE review, more than 500 videos, Anatomy & Physiology Revealed, 20+ leading textbooks, and more.

$595 USD
Buy Now

Pay Per View: Timed Access to all of AccessPhysiotherapy

24 Hour Subscription $34.95

Buy Now

48 Hour Subscription $54.95

Buy Now

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.