Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS)
Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND)
Alcohol-related birth defects (ARBDs)
PREFERRED PRACTICE PATTERN
A 9-month-old infant is referred to physical therapy for fetal alcohol syndrome. The infant was recently placed with a local foster family. The foster mother reports no medical history is available regarding the baby but she has noticed the baby is not developing like the other foster children she has had. Upon examination, the therapist notes the infant is mildly hypotonic overall and is exhibiting gross motor delay as evidenced by an inability to roll, crawl, or sit independently.
Partial fetal alcohol syndrome: Characterized by at least two facial characteristics and at least one of the other typical syndrome characteristics4
Alcohol-related neurologic disorder (ARND): Less severe form4 that does not involve atypical facial features but does involve at least one of the other typical syndrome characteristics4
ARBDs: Includes at least two facial characteristics, at least one major congenital organ defect, and at least 2 minor defects2
Characteristic facies associated with fetal alcohol syndrome. (From Tintinalli JE, J. Stephan Stapczynski, O. John Ma, et al., eds. Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 7th ed. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.)
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS4
Central nervous system
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