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INTRODUCTION

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Segment Lengths*
SEGMENT MALES FEMALES
Head and neck 10.75 10.75
Trunk 30.00 29.00
Upper arm 17.20 17.30
Forearm 15.70 16.00
Hand 5.75 5.75
Thigh 23.20 24.90
Lower leg 24.70 25.70
Foot 4.25 4.25
Segment lengths expressed in percentages of total body height.

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Segment Weights
SEGMENT MALES FEMALES
Head 8.26 8.20
Trunk 46.84 45.00
Upper arm 3.25 2.90
Forearm 1.87 1.57
Hand 0.65 0.50
Thigh 10.50 11.75
Lower leg 4.75 5.35
Foot 1.43 1.33
Segment weights expressed in percentages of total body weight

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Segmental Center of Gravity Locations
SEGMENT MALES FEMALES
Head and neck 55.0 55.0
Trunk 63.0 56.9
Upper arm 43.6 45.8
Forearm 43.0 43.4
Hand 46.8 46.8
Thigh 43.3 42.8
Lower leg 43.4 41.9
Foot 50.0 50.0
Segmental center of gravity locations expressed in percentages of segment lengths; measured from the proximal ends of segments.

From Plagenhoef S, Evans FG, and Abdelnour T: Anatomical data for analyzing human motion, Res Q Exerc Sport 54:169, 1983.

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Segmental Radii of Gyration Measured from Proximal and Distal Segment Ends
SEGMENT MALES FEMALES
PROXIMAL DISTAL PROXIMAL DISTAL
Upper arm 54.2 64.5 56.4 62.3
Forearm 52.6 54.7 53.0 64.3
Hand 54.9 54.9 54.9 54.9
Thigh 54.0 65.3 53.5 65.8
Lower leg 52.9 64.2 51.4 65.7
Foot 69.0 69.0 69.0 69.0
Segmental radii of gyration expressed in percentages of segment lengths

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*The values reported in these tables represent mean values for limited numbers of individuals as reported in the scientifi c literature.

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