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Basal Ganglia Disorders: Parkinson's and Huntington's Diseases

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Parkinson’s disease is caused by loss of dopamine-containing neurons in the:

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A. Substantia nigra pars reticulata

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B Substantia nigra pars compacta

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C. Striatum

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D. Subthalamic nucleus

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B. Substantia nigra pars compacta

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A patient with Parkinson’s Disease (Hoehn and Yahr Stage 3) who is taking Sinemet is receiving physical therapy for fall prevention. Which of the following impairments are most likely to contribute to the patient’s balance problems?

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A. Orthostatic hypotension, stooped posture, impaired postural reflexes

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B. Hypotonia, freezing of gait, orthostatic hypotension

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C. Chorea, stooped posture, festinating gait

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D. Stooped posture, dyskinesias, and motor impersistence

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A. Orthostatic hypotension, stooped posture, impaired postural reflexes

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A Parkinson-plus syndrome that is characterized by early postural instability and difficulty moving the eyes is:

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A. Multiple system atrophy

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B. Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration

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C. Olivopontocerebellar atrophy

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D. Progressive supranuclear palsy

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D. Progressive supranuclear palsy

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A person with Parkinson’s disease who is a good candidate for deep brain stimulation:

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A. Has no response to levodopa

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B. Has never been treated with levodopa

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C. Has rigidity and dyskinesias that are no longer controlled with medications

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D. Has postural instability that is no longer controlled with medications

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C. Has rigidity and dyskinesias that are no longer controlled with medications

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A decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa is given with levodopa (L-dopa) to:

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A. Convert L-dopa to dopamine in the periphery so that it can cross the blood–brain barrier

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B. Aid in the uptake of L-dopa into nerve terminals

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C. Prevent the conversion of L-dopa to dopamine in the periphery

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D. Aid in the active transport of L-dopa across the blood–brain barrier.

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C. Prevent the conversion of L-dopa to dopamine in the periphery

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Which of the following neuropathological findings is characteristic of Huntington’s Disease?

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A. Degeneration of olfactory bulb neurons

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B. Atrophy of the caudate nucleus

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