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Neural Tube Disorders and Hydrocephalus

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The form of spina bifida in which part of the spinal cord and nerves protrude through an incompletely closed spine is:

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A. Acute spinal defect

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B. Meningocele

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C. Myelomeningocele

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D. Spina bifida occulta

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C. Myelomeningocele

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A baby is born with a small sac at the occiput of the cranium, filled with fluid and a small amount of neural tissue; this defect would correctly be called a/an:

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A. Anencephaly

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B. Encephalocele

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C. Hydrocele

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D. Meningocele

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B. Encephalocele

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Which of the following regarding spina bifida is accurate:

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A. Myelomeningocele is the least severe form.

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B. The bony deformity involves malformation of the transverse process of the vertebral body.

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C. The most common location is within the cervical spine.

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D. Folic acid deficiency may contribute to spina bifida

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D. Folic acid deficiency may contribute to spina bifida

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The most appropriate orthosis for a child with myelomeningocele who has medial and lateral knee instability, has inadequate toe clearance during gait, has quad strength of 2, and is a household ambulator with limited community ambulation is:

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A. HKAFO

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B. KAFO

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C. SMA

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D. TKAFO

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B. KAFO

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When a PT positions the infant in supine with hips flexed to 90 degrees and abducts one hip, causing the head of the femur to move posteriorly, the PT is using the

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A. Clunk test to determine hip symmetry

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B. Ober test to determine iliotibial band tightness

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C. Galeazzi sign to determine differences in thigh length

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D. Ortolani sign to identify hip dislocation

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D. Ortolani sign to identify hip dislocation

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You’re evaluating an infant with a myelomeningocele defect that has 4/5 ileopsoas and quad strength and 3/5 anterior tibialis strength. It is likely that this child’s lesion is at level:

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A. L3

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B. L4

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C. L5

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