Chapter 11

### Interactive Gallery

The appendicular skeletal structures include a set of long bones for both the upper and lower extremities. The special functions associated with these structures provide unique fracture and, thus, healing patterns. Since the lower extremity is weight bearing, specific approaches to fracture management which allow some level of early weight bearing have evolved to better minimize the secondary changes associated with immobilization and a non–weight-bearing status. As a general rule, lower extremity management is all about function (enable return to weight bearing and thus ambulation), whereas upper extremity management is more likely to include a level of attention to cosmesis. The long bones each have inherent patterns of loading related to their individual roles, and thus have specific patterns of injury. These will be addressed in each section of this chapter, and we have chosen primarily to discuss fractures of the shafts of these long bones with the other chapters presenting those which include the articular portion of the bone.

###### Figure 11–1

Avulsion fracture of medial epicondyle. Tension loading from musculotendinous units can separate the bony attachment point from the main portion of the bone to result in an avulsion fracture.

###### Figure 11–2

Impacted fracture of femoral neck. Beyond capacity compressive loading of the bone can result in an impact fracture. Note the shortening of the femoral neck in this radiograph.

###### Figure 11–3

Transverse fracture of femur. Bending forces imposed on long bones will ...

Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.

Ok

## Subscription Options

### AccessPhysiotherapy Full Site: One-Year Subscription

Connect to the full suite of AccessPhysiotherapy content and resources including interactive NPTE review, more than 500 videos, Anatomy & Physiology Revealed, 20+ leading textbooks, and more.