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Absolute angle Angular orientation of a body segment with respect to a fixed line of reference

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Acromioclavicular joint Irregular joint between the acromion process of the scapula and the distal clavicle

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Active insufficiency Limited ability of a two-joint muscle to produce force when joint position places the muscle on slack

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Active stretching Stretching of muscles, tendons, and ligaments produced by active development of tension in the antagonist muscles

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Acute loading Application of a single force of sufficient magnitude to cause injury to a biological tissue

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Agonist Role played by a muscle acting to cause a movement

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Amenorrhea Cessation of menses

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Anatomical reference position Erect standing position with all body parts, including the palms of the hands, facing forward; considered the starting position for body segment movements

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Angle of attack Angle between the longitudinal axis of a body and the direction of the fluid flow

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Angle of projection The direction at which a body is projected with respect to the horizontal

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Angular Involving rotation around a central line or point

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Angular acceleration Rate of change in angular velocity

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Angular displacement Change in the angular position or orientation of a line segment

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Angular impulse Change in angular momentum equal to the product of torque and time interval over which the torque acts

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Angular momentum Quantity of angular motion possessed by a body; measured as the product of moment of inertia and angular velocity

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Angular velocity Rate of change in the angular position or orientation of a line segment

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Anisotropic Exhibiting different mechanical properties in response to loads from different directions

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Annulus fibrosus Thick, fibrocartilaginous ring that forms the exterior of the intervertebral disc

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Antagonist Role played by a muscle acting to slow or stop a movement

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Anteroposterior axis Imaginary line around which frontal plane rotations occur

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Anthropometric Related to the dimensions and weights of body segments

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Apex The highest point in the trajectory of a projectile

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Appendicular skeleton Bones composing the body appendages

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Archimedes’ principle Physical law stating that the buoyant force acting on a body is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body

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Articular capsule Double-layered membrane that surrounds every synovial joint

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Articular cartilage Protective layer of dense white connective tissue covering the articulating bone surfaces at diarthrodial joints

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Articular fibrocartilage Soft-tissue discs or menisci that intervene between articulating bones

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Average Occurring over a designated time interval

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Axial Directed along the longitudinal axis of a body

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Axial skeleton The skull, vertebrae, sternum, and ribs

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Axis of rotation Imaginary line perpendicular to the plane of rotation and passing through the center of rotation

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Balance Ability to control equilibrium

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Ballistic stretching A series ...

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