At the conclusion of this chapter, the student should be able
- 1. Define flexibility, muscular strength, and endurance,
and state how each can be developed.
- 2. State the principles that should be followed when prescribing
or engaging in exercises for flexibility.
- 3. Develop an appropriate exercise for improving range of
motion in any joint.
- 4. Name and describe the four types of exercise programs used
for muscle strength and development.
- 5. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of each type
of muscle strength and endurance program.
- 6. Develop a graded exercise series for strengthening each
of three muscle groups. Justify the selection and order of the exercises
using the outline for kinesiological analysis.
The objectives of exercise programs are to effect musculoskeletal,
circulatory, and respiratory adaptations that will make possible
increases in strength, flexibility, and work capacity for safer and
more enjoyable motion in work, play, and activities of daily living.
In the twenty-first century exercise, in any form, has taken on
new importance as the population changes. The sharp increase in
the rate of obesity and the increase in active life span give new
meaning to the idea of exercise for health. Exercise programs are
used to ready athletes for competition, curb obesity, reduce falls in
the elderly, decrease the incidence of musculoskeletal pain, and
for a myriad of other reasons. Health professionals worldwide are
sounding the call for an increase in levels of physical activity for
all. It is the job of the movement specialist to help provide safe
and effective means for exercise enhancement.
The interests of the exercise physiologist and the kinesiologist
overlap in the realm of exercise. Both are concerned with the energy,
work, and power aspects and the musculoskeletal and neuromuscular
dimensions of exercise. They diverge in their concerns with the
physiologist’s focus on energy sources and demands and
the kinesiologist’s focus on forces causing the motion
and analysis of technique. Knowing what to select for an appropriate
conditioning or therapeutic exercise program requires knowledge
of both exercise physiology and kinesiology. As might be expected, the
discussion in this chapter is limited primarily to the kinesiology
of selected exercises—namely, those designed primarily
to increase flexibility, develop muscular strength and endurance,
and improve core stability. Understanding the demands of a movement
will help the individual select appropriate exercises to enhance
performance or rehabilitate following an injury.
Flexibility is the ability of the tissues surrounding a joint
to yield to stretching without interference or opposition and then
to relax. The tissues to be stretched include not only the ligaments, fasciae,
and other connective tissue related to the joints but, in many instances,
the antagonistic muscles as well—that is, the muscles that
oppose the movement in which the joint action is limited. For instance,
the restriction in a person who is unable to bend over and touch
the floor without bending the knees is more likely to be caused
by tight ...