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Classification of Joints and Their Movements
TypeArticulationMovement
Diarthrodial: Nonaxial
Shoulder girdle
SternoclavicularLimited motion of end of clavicle in all three planes
Elevation–depression
Forward-backward
Rotation: forward-downward; backward-upward
AcromioclavicularMovements of scapula (including motion in both joints)
Irregular; Arthrodial; PlaneElevation–depression
Rotation: upward-downward
Abduction–adduction
Upward tilt—reduction of same
IntercarpalSlight gliding movements in cooperation with movements of wrist and metacarpals
IntertarsalSlight gliding movements in cooperation with movements of talonavicular and ankle joints
Diarthrodial: Uniaxial
Elbow
HumeroulnarFlexion–extension–hyperextension (slight)
Knee
TibiofemoralFlexion–extension–hyperextension (slight)
Hinge; GinglymusAnkle
Talotibial and talofibularDorsiflexion–plantar flexion (extension)
Fingers and thumbFlexion–extension
Interphalangeal
Toes
InterphalangealFlexion–extension
Forearm
Proximal and distal radioulnarSupination–pronation
Pivot; Screw; TrochoidNeck
Atlantoaxial (first and second cervical)Rotation: right-left
Diarthrodial: Biaxial
WristFlexion–extension–hyperextension
RadiocarpalAbduction–adduction
Fingers
MetacarpophalangealFlexion–extension
Abduction–adduction
Condyloid; Ovoid; Ellipsoidal
Toes
MetatarsophalangealFlexion–extension–hyperextension
Abduction–adduction (limited)
Head
OccipitoatlantalFlexion–extension–hyperextension
Lateral flexion: right-left
Saddle; Seller; Reciprocal reception
Thumb
CarpometacarpalFlexion–extension–hyperextension
Abduction–adduction
Opposition (combination of abduction, hyperflexion, and possibly slight inward rotation)*
Diarthrodial: Triaxial
ShoulderFlexion–extension–hyperextension
GlenohumeralAbduction–adduction
Rotation: outward-inward
Ball-and-socket; EnarthrodialHorizontal adduction (from abduction)
Horizontal abduction (from flexion)
Hip
FemoroacetabularFlexion–extension–hyperextension
Abduction–adduction
Rotation: outward-inward
Horizontal adduction (from abduction)
Horizontal abduction (from flexion)
Shallow ball-and-socketFootDorsiflexion–plantar flexion (very slight)
TalonavicularAbduction–adduction (slight)
Inversion–eversion (very slight)
Combination Diarthrodial Nonaxial and Fibrocartilaginous Synarthrodial
Triaxial simulated ball-and-socketVertebral bodies
Intervertebral cartilages

Flexion

Extension

Hyperextension

Lateral flexion: right-left

Rotation: right-left

Nonaxial irregularVertebral arches

*Opinions differ with respect to inward rotation.

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