Skip to Main Content

++

An estimated 20% of injuries to upper extremities involve the elbow, and approximately 10% involve the wrist; the majority of these injuries are overuse type of injuries.1–4 Sports in which overuse injuries of the elbow and wrist in an adolescent occur are listed in Table 23-1. Also, in racquet sports (such as tennis or badminton) and in gymnastics, the elbow is subject to significant stress resulting in overuse injuries.

++
Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 23-1. Sports in Which Overuse Injuries of Elbow and Wrist Are Seen
++

Definitions and Epidemiology

++

Repetitive throwing action can result in multiple injuries of elbow and are summarized in the Table 23-2.5–11 Collectively, varying degrees of these injuries represent the “little leaguer elbow,” which is a less preferred and nonspecific term.

++
Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 23-2. Elbow Injuries Associated with Throwing
++

Mechanisms

++

The secondary ossification centers around the elbow include the capitellum, radial head, medial epicondyle of the humerus, trochlea, olecranon, and lateral epicondyle. These generally fuse between ages 14 and 17. Elbow injuries in athletes involved in throwing sports have been extensively studied, specifically for the pitcher in youth baseball.5,6,10 The motion of throwing (pitching) in baseball is characterized by a complex series of movements. This is divided into windup, cocking, acceleration, release, and follow-through phases (Figure 23-1). During each phase different structures are stressed resulting in different injuries. (Table 23-3). On the medial side of the elbow the medial collateral ligament, the immature (unfused) epicondyle, and the ulnar nerve are affected because of repeated traction. On the lateral side there is repeated impact at the radiocapitellar area, and posteriorly there is extension overload affecting mainly the triceps insertion, and olecranon.

++
Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 23-3. Mechanism of Throwing

Want remote access to your institution's subscription?

Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.

Ok

About MyAccess

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus.

Subscription Options

AccessPhysiotherapy Full Site: One-Year Subscription

Connect to the full suite of AccessPhysiotherapy content and resources including interactive NPTE review, more than 500 videos, Anatomy & Physiology Revealed, 20+ leading textbooks, and more.

$595 USD
Buy Now

Pay Per View: Timed Access to all of AccessPhysiotherapy

24 Hour Subscription $34.95

Buy Now

48 Hour Subscription $54.95

Buy Now

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.