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This clinic companion was designed to provide physical therapy students and clinicians with a quick reference source for orthopaedics. The book may be used in a number of ways. The beginner should start with the introductory chapters that provide descriptions of anatomy, physiology, and biomechanics in addition to guidelines that steer the clinician through the complex progression of the clinical examination, evaluation, and intervention. The more experienced clinician can brush up on a specific topic by reading the relevant chapter in its entirety or focus on a specific diagnosis. Each of the body area chapters provides quick-reference tables and illustrations to assist the clinician and clinical pearls are provided to highlight the most salient points. At the end of each of the relevant chapters the most common diagnoses are described based on their common subjective and objective findings, confirmatory tests, differential diagnosis, recommended intervention, and prognosis.

The questions provided at the end of each joint chapter are designed to increase the reader's knowledge. Although most of the answers are provided within the text, some are not, so that the reader is encouraged to complete further reading.

Although most clinicians inherently know that the intensity of an intervention is based on the stage of healing, formulating ideas for appropriate intervention beyond the use of heat, cold and the various electrotherapeutic modalities often proves difficult. At the end of each of the body area chapters a hierarchical series of appropriate therapeutic exercises, in the form of a clinical ladder, is presented. The advantage of these exercise steps is that they can be used for any injury regardless of the diagnosis as they are based on patient tolerance. However, for the exercises to be effective, each of the exercise steps must be used in the order they are presented.

It is hoped that this book achieves its aim—to provide the student and clinician with the necessary tools for the comprehensive examination, evaluation, and intervention of the outpatient orthopedic population.

Mark Dutton, PT

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