Smooth, striated (skeletal), and cardiac
A muscle that has a parallel fiber arrangement.
Synergist muscles are muscle groups that work together to produce a desired movement.
An agonist muscle contracts to produce the desired movement while synergistic muscles are groups of muscles that work together to cause the same movement.
Flexor pollicis longus, extensor digitorum longus
To provide sensory information concerning changes in the length and tension of the muscle fibers.
Annulospiral, and flower spray
Nuclear bag and nuclear chain
To provide support, enhance leverage, protect vital structures, provide attachments for both tendons and ligaments, and store minerals.
Tendons that wrap around a convex surface or the apex of a concavity, those that cross two joints, those with areas of scant vascular supply, and those that are subjected to repetitive tension, are particularly vulnerable to overuse injuries.
The term tendinitis implies inflammation, whereas tendinosis results from a degenerative process.
The erect standing position with the feet just slightly separated and the arms hanging by the side, the elbows straight and with the palms of the hand facing forward.
The sagittal axis
Flexion of the hip or knee
The glenohumeral joint
The hip joint
Full elbow extension
Full elbow extension, full forearm supination
Slide (glide), roll/rock, spin
False: male surface (female, rocks)
The motion of a bone in space
The motion of joint surfaces
The forces acting upon a joint
If the joint surface is convex relative to the other surface, the slide occurs in the opposite direction to the osteokinematic motion. If, on the other hand, the joint surface is concave, the slide occurs in the same direction as the osteokinematic motion.
Flexion of the shoulder/hip
An unmodified sellar joint is also referred to as a saddle joint. Two examples include the trapeziometacarpal joint, and the calcaneocuboid joint
A modified sellar joint is a saddle-shaped joint whose surface convexity is not perpendicular to its concavities (a hinge joint). Two examples include any of the interphalangeal joints.
Examples include any structure within the central nervous system, nerve roots, nerve trunks, and peripheral nerves.
The brain and the spinal cord
The corticospinal tracts
The corticospinal tracts
The spinothalmic tract
The dorsal column lemniscal
Alpha and gamma
Innervation of muscle fibers
They supply the small intrafusal muscle fibers of the muscle spindle.
The C5 nerve root
L4 and L5
Gait ataxia, pathological reflexes, spasticity, hyperreflexia.
Calcium, potassium, and sodium
CN IX (glossopharyngeal) and CN X (vagus)
Biceps, brachialis, supinator, and extensor carpi radialis
The phrenic nerve
Examination, evaluation, diagnosis, prognosis, and intervention.
The history, systems review, and tests and measures.
Any five of the following: changes in mental status, fever, changes in bowel or bladder, nausea, night sweats, ...
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