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  1. Smooth, striated (skeletal), and cardiac

  2. A muscle that has a parallel fiber arrangement.

  3. Synergist muscles are muscle groups that work together to produce a desired movement.

  4. An agonist muscle contracts to produce the desired movement while synergistic muscles are groups of muscles that work together to cause the same movement.

  5. Flexor pollicis longus, extensor digitorum longus

  6. Rectus femoris

  7. The deltoid

  8. Meissner

  9. Pacinian

  10. Type II

  11. Type IIb

  12. To provide sensory information concerning changes in the length and tension of the muscle fibers.

  13. Annulospiral, and flower spray

  14. Nuclear bag and nuclear chain

  15. To provide support, enhance leverage, protect vital structures, provide attachments for both tendons and ligaments, and store minerals.

  16. Tendons that wrap around a convex surface or the apex of a concavity, those that cross two joints, those with areas of scant vascular supply, and those that are subjected to repetitive tension, are particularly vulnerable to overuse injuries.

  17. The term tendinitis implies inflammation, whereas tendinosis results from a degenerative process.

  18. Fascia

  19. The erect standing position with the feet just slightly separated and the arms hanging by the side, the elbows straight and with the palms of the hand facing forward.

  20. Sagittal

  21. The sagittal axis

  22. Flexion of the hip or knee

  23. The glenohumeral joint

  24. The hip joint

  25. Full elbow extension

  26. Full elbow extension, full forearm supination

  27. Slide (glide), roll/rock, spin

  28. False: male surface (female, rocks)

  29. The motion of a bone in space

  30. The motion of joint surfaces

  31. The forces acting upon a joint

  32. If the joint surface is convex relative to the other surface, the slide occurs in the opposite direction to the osteokinematic motion. If, on the other hand, the joint surface is concave, the slide occurs in the same direction as the osteokinematic motion.

  33. Flexion of the shoulder/hip

  34. Glenohumeral abduction/adduction

  35. An unmodified sellar joint is also referred to as a saddle joint. Two examples include the trapeziometacarpal joint, and the calcaneocuboid joint

  36. A modified sellar joint is a saddle-shaped joint whose surface convexity is not perpendicular to its concavities (a hinge joint). Two examples include any of the interphalangeal joints.

++

  1. Examples include any structure within the central nervous system, nerve roots, nerve trunks, and peripheral nerves.

  2. The brain and the spinal cord

  3. Cerebrospinal

  4. The corticospinal tracts

  5. The corticospinal tracts

  6. The spinothalmic tract

  7. The dorsal column lemniscal

  8. Alpha and gamma

  9. Innervation of muscle fibers

  10. They supply the small intrafusal muscle fibers of the muscle spindle.

  11. The C5 nerve root

  12. T4.

  13. L4 and L5

  14. Gait ataxia, pathological reflexes, spasticity, hyperreflexia.

  15. 8

  16. L4–S2

  17. Calcium, potassium, and sodium

  18. CN XI

  19. CN IV

  20. CN IX (glossopharyngeal) and CN X (vagus)

  21. Biceps, brachialis, supinator, and extensor carpi radialis

  22. The phrenic nerve

  23. Radial

  24. Median

  25. Median

  26. Ulnar

  27. Ulnar

  28. Median

  29. D

  30. E

  31. D

  32. A

  33. C

  34. A

  35. C

  36. A

  37. D

  38. D

  39. C

  40. E

  41. E

  42. D

  43. E

  44. D

  45. C

  46. Lower

++

  1. Examination, evaluation, diagnosis, prognosis, and intervention.

  2. The history, systems review, and tests and measures.

  3. Any five of the following: changes in mental status, fever, changes in bowel or bladder, nausea, night sweats, ...

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