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Laboratory tests, which provide the clinician with insight into the physiological status of an individual, are tools helpful in determining a diagnosis when used as an adjunct to the patient history and physical examination. Laboratory tests can be used for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring patient health and disease.


The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) of the Department of Health and Human Services regulate or laboratory testing (except research) performed on human beings in United States through the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA).1


The interpretation of a laboratory test result is made using a reference range for the age and sex of the patient which is the interval between and including below and up a reference limits. The interval is determined statistically by the assay of the analyte of interest in a selected population.1 The range reflects the selected population only. The traditional reference range for quantitative test is the range of values of the central 95% of the healthy population.1 Reference ranges are reported in the same units as the test result and depend on the method used.


The tables (Tables 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) that follow are intended for guidance only.

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Appendix Table 1. Intervention Categories

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