The 12 pairs of cranial nerves are referred to by either name or Roman numeral (Fig 8–1 and Table 8–1). Note that the olfactory peduncle (see Chapter 19) and the optic nerve (see Chapter 15) are not true nerves but rather fiber tracts of the brain, whereas nerve XI (the spinal accessory nerve) is derived, in part, from the upper cervical segments of the spinal cord. The remaining nine pairs relate to the brain stem.
Ventral view of the brain stem with cranial nerves.
Table 8–1 Overview of Cranial Nerves. |Favorite Table|Download (.pdf)
Table 8–1 Overview of Cranial Nerves.
Location of Cell bodies
Within Sensory Organ or Ganglia
Within Brain Stem
Sense of smell
Mucosa projects to olfactory bulb
Visual input from eye
Ganglion cells in retina
Projects to lateral geniculate; superior colliculus
Auditory and vestibular input from inner ear
Projects to cochlear nuclei, then inferior colliculi, medial geniculate
Projects to vestibular nuclei
Motor for Ocular System:
Medial rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique
Receives input from lateral gaze center (paramedial pontine recticular formation; PPRF) via median longitudinal fasciculus
Constriction of pupil
Projects to ciliary ganglia, then to pupil
Receives input from PPRF
Other Pure Motor:
Ventral horns at C2–5
Muscles of tongue, hyoid bone
Sensation from face, cornea, teeth, gum, palate.
General sensation from anterior 2/3 of tongue
Semilunar (= gasserian or trigeminal) ganglia
Projects to sensory nuclei and spinal tract of V, then to thalamus (VPM)
Motor nucleus of V
Muscles of facial expression, platysma, stapedius
Taste, anterior 2/3 of tongue (via chorda tympani)
Projects to solitary tract and nucleus, then to thalamus (VPM)
Submandibular, sublingual, lacrimal glands (via nervus intermedius)
Superior salivatory nucleus
Inferior salivatory nucleus
General sensation from posterior 1/3 of tongue, soft palate, auditory tube. Sensory input from carotid bodies and sinus. Taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue
Inferior (petrosal) and superior glossopharyngeal ganglia
Projects to solitary tract and nucleus
Soft palate and pharynx
Autonomic control of thoracic and abdominal viscera
Dorsal motor nucleus
External auditory meatus
Superior (jugular) ganglion
Projects to thalamus (VPM)
Sensation from abdominal and thoracic viscera
Inferior vagal (nodose) and superior ganglia
Projects to solitary tract and nucleus
* Efferent (motor)
SE—somatic; general SE
VA—visceral; general VA, ...
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