Skip to Main Content


  • Shoulder dislocation
  • Humerus dislocation


  • 831 Dislocation of shoulder
  • 831.0 Closed dislocation of shoulder
  • 831.00 Closed dislocation of shoulder, unspecified
  • 831.01 Closed anterior dislocation of humerus
  • 831.02 Closed posterior dislocation of humerus
  • 831.03 Closed inferior dislocation of humerus
  • 831.09 Closed dislocation of shoulder, other
  • 831.1 Open dislocation of shoulder
  • 831.10 Open dislocation of shoulder, unspecified
  • 831.11 Open anterior dislocation of humerus
  • 831.12 Open posterior dislocation of humerus
  • 831.13 Open inferior dislocation of humerus
  • 831.19 Open dislocation of shoulder, other


  • S43.006A Unspecified dislocation of unspecified shoulder joint, initial encounter
  • S43.016A Anterior dislocation of unspecified humerus, initial encounter
  • S43.026A Posterior dislocation of unspecified humerus, initial encounter
  • S43.036A Inferior dislocation of unspecified humerus, initial encounter
  • S43.086A Other dislocation of unspecified shoulder joint, initial encounter
  • S43.109A Unspecified dislocation of unspecified acromioclavicular joint, initial encounter




  • Humerus can dislocate anteriorly, posteriorly or inferiorly out of the socket.
  • Excessive translation of the humeral head in one or more directions
  • The instability may be associated with dislocation or subluxation associated with a trauma event.
  • GH instability may also be secondary to atraumatic factors associated with structural, postural, or movement dysfunction and possibly from recurrent minor injury to the structures of the glenohumeral joint.2-4
  • Symptomatology and management is different depending on the onset, degree, frequency, direction, associated pathology, neuromuscular control, and premorbid activity level.4
    • Anterior or anterior inferior instability
      • Mechanism
        • 95% of traumatic shoulder instabilities4
        • Can result in dislocation or subluxation
        • The humerus is forced into extreme abduction and external rotation and/or horizontal abduction.
        • Associated pathology includes Bankart lesion (anterior), humeral avulsion of GH ligaments (HAGL), and Hill-Sachs lesion.
      • Symptoms
        • Anterior and inferior shoulder pain
        • Instability and apprehension to abduction, external rotation and horizontal abduction motions
    • Posterior Instability
      • Mechanism
        • 5% of traumatic shoulder instabilities4
        • Can result in dislocation or subluxation
        • A fall on an outstretched arm of movements of extreme horizontal adduction or internal rotation
        • Associated pathology includes disruption of the posterior capsule, tearing of the teres minor, and reverse Hill-Sachs lesion.6
      • Symptoms
        • Posterior shoulder pain
        • Instability and apprehension to flexion, horizontal adduction, and internal rotation
    • Multidirectional instability
      • Mechanism
        • May occur without episode of trauma, however, patient may have a history of traumatic dislocation7
        • Can result in dislocation or subluxation
        • Instability and apprehension are present in multiple directions, although one direction may be the primary direction of instability.
        • Associated pathology depends on the primary direction of instability, duration of instability, and history of trauma.4,7
      • Symptoms
        • Pain and instability are often determined by the direction of primary instability and can vary based on activity.


Essentials of Diagnosis


  • Diagnosis is made primarily by clinical examination, however, imaging is often necessary to rule in or out associated pathology.
  • Anterior instability is the most common followed by multidirectional and then ...

Want remote access to your institution's subscription?

Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.


About MyAccess

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus.

Subscription Options

AccessPhysiotherapy Full Site: One-Year Subscription

Connect to the full suite of AccessPhysiotherapy content and resources including interactive NPTE review, more than 500 videos, Anatomy & Physiology Revealed, 20+ leading textbooks, and more.

$595 USD
Buy Now

Pay Per View: Timed Access to all of AccessPhysiotherapy

24 Hour Subscription $34.95

Buy Now

48 Hour Subscription $54.95

Buy Now

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.