- G40.909 Epilepsy, epileptic, epilepsia (attack) (cerebral)
(convulsion) (fit) (seizure)
- Chronic disorder of various causes characterized by recurrent
- Seizures result from sudden and excessive electrical discharge
of large groups of neurons
- Diagnosis requires that the individual experience seizures,
but not all seizures are indicative of epilepsy
- Epilepsy can be caused by any major category of serious disease
or human disorder
- Approximately 1% of cases result from genetic disease
- People with idiopathic or primary epilepsies share the following
- Variable family history
- Generalized spike-wave abnormality on electroencephalogram
- Onset in childhood or adolescence
- Development of epilepsy in an individual who suffers brain
injury is influenced by family history and pre- and post-morbid
- Third most common serious neurologic disease in the elderly,
following stroke and dementia
- Depression commonly occurs in people with epilepsy
- Suggested that the hippocampus, implicated
in both mood disorders and seizures, is likely link between depression
- Events that may trigger seizure in people with epilepsy include
- Poor nutrition
- Missed medication
- Skipping meals
- Flickering lights
- Fever and allergies
- Lack of sleep
- Strong emotions
- Heat and humidity
- Fear of seizure may cause self-restriction of activities resulting
in deconditioning, reduced balance strategy, loss of muscle strength
- Affects approximately 45 million people worldwide
- Highest incidence in young children and elderly populations;
75% of cases have onset before age 20 years
- Men affected slightly more than women
- Many people with epilepsy have no outward signs or symptoms
except during seizure
- Most signs and symptoms related to medication use, such as
- Slurred speech
- Injury from fall at onset of seizures or collision with
objects during the seizure
- Asphyxia if seizure occurs while eating, drinking, swimming
- Deconditioning resulting in poor activity tolerance and increased
- Transient ischemic attack
- Other seizure disorder
- Transient cerebral anoxia
- Recurrent cardiac arrhythmia
- Nonspecific dizziness or episodic vertigo
- MRI to rule out other pathologies causing ...
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