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  • Vertebral compression fracture

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  • 805.0 Closed fracture of cervical vertebra without mention of spinal cord injury
  • 805.1 Open fracture of cervical vertebra without mention of spinal cord injury
  • 805.2 Closed fracture of dorsal (thoracic) vertebra without spinal cord injury
  • 805.3 Open fracture of dorsal (thoracic) vertebra without spinal cord injury
  • 805.4 Closed fracture of lumbar vertebra without spinal cord injury
  • 805.5 Open fracture of lumbar vertebra without spinal cord injury
  • 805.6 Closed fracture of sacrum and coccyx without spinal cord injury
  • 805.7 Open fracture of sacrum and coccyx without spinal cord injury
  • 805.8 Closed fracture of unspecified part of vertebral column without spinal cord injury
  • 805.9 Open fracture of unspecified part of vertebral column without spinal cord injury

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  • S12.9XXA Fracture of neck, unspecified, initial encounter
  • S22.009A Unspecified fracture of unspecified thoracic vertebra, initial encounter for closed fracture
  • S22.009B Unspecified fracture of unspecified thoracic vertebra, initial encounter for open fracture
  • S32.009A Unspecified fracture of unspecified lumbar vertebra, initial encounter for closed fracture
  • S32.009B Unspecified fracture of unspecified lumbar vertebra, initial encounter for open fracture
  • S32.10XA Unspecified fracture of sacrum, initial encounter for closed fracture
  • S32.2XXA Fracture of coccyx, initial encounter for closed fracture
  • S32.10XB Unspecified fracture of sacrum, initial encounter for open fracture
  • S32.2XXB Fracture of coccyx, initial encounter for open fracture

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Description

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  • Fracture
  • Any defect in the continuity of the end plate or vertebral body
  • Types of spinal fractures
    • Compression fracture
      • Wedge deformity
      • Anterior vertebral body fractures, with loss of height greater anteriorly than posteriorly
      • Usually stable
      • Rarely associated with neurologic symptoms
  • Axial burst fracture
    • Anterior and posterior vertebral body fracture
    • Mechanism of injury is usually fall from height
  • Flexion/distraction fracture
    • Vertebra is pulled apart
    • Such as in a motor vehicle accident
  • Transverse process fracture
    • Uncommon
    • Results from rotation or extreme lateral bending
  • Fracture-dislocation
    • Unstable injury
    • Involves bone and soft tissue injury
    • Vertebra becomes displaced from adjacent vertebra
    • Results in serious spinal cord compression

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Essentials of Diagnosis

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  • Diagnosis is usually made by clinical examination
  • Can be an independent diagnosis and not associated with a disease process

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General Considerations

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  • Most common fractures of the spine occur in the thoracic and lumbar spine

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Demographics

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  • Men experience these fractures 4 times more often than women
  • Increased risk of spinal fracture in the elderly secondary to osteoporosis
    • Occurs in approximately 700,000 individuals yearly

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Signs and Symptoms

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  • Moderate to severe back pain
  • Pain is exacerbated with movement
  • Loss of height
  • Constipation
  • Respiratory problems
  • Some pain relief with lying down
  • Deformity of the spine
  • If spinal cord is involved, individual presents with:
    • Numbness and tingling in lower extremities (LEs)
    • LE weakness
    • Alterations in bowel and bladder function

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Functional Implications

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  • Pain ...

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