- Runner’s knee1
- Tensor fascia latae syndrome (TFLS)
- Iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS)
- 728.89 Other disorders of muscle, ligament, and fascia
- M62.89 Other specified disorders of muscle
- Original presumed model of repetitive stress injury due to friction between the IT band3 and lateral femoral condyle, occurring at approximately 30 degrees of knee flexion4
- Inflammation begins at IT band’s insertion and where friction develops between the IT band and lateral femoral condyle1
- Newer proposed model of the ITB being a thickness within the lateral fascia
- Tightening is a result of repetitive stress
- Lateral extension of the synovial capsule in the knee, lateral synovial recess
- Cyst formation
- Osseous edema without evidence of fascial inflammation
- Bursitis that develops deep within the IT band as it crosses the lateral femoral condyle3
- Diagnosis usually made by clinical examination
- Progression of symptoms often associated with changes in training practice (e.g., increased running mileage or change in training surfaces, especially downhill running1)
- Pain from ITBFS so severe that activity must be discontinued
- Most commonly occurs from overuse injury of the knee, especially in long-distance runners
- Frequently develops in people with inadequate warm-up or stretching program before exercise
- Associated with leg-length discrepancies, tensor fascia latae contractures, excessive pronation, tight heel cords1, 6
- Though most common in runners, may occur with any activity requiring constant knee flexion and extension1
- Men and women equally affected
- Distance runners, exacerbated with downhill running
- Repetitive knee flexion, extension
- Training on uneven terrain or graded slopes
- Change in Q-angle as a result of leg-length discrepancy4
- Localized tenderness and pain along lateral aspect of knee, especially with repetitive knee motion
- Pain may be diffuse and general at onset, becoming more specific and intense as ITBFS progresses
- Specific pain localized approximately 2 cm above joint line over the lateral femoral condyle with knee flexed 30 degrees3
- Pain will radiate to lateral joint line and distally to proximal tibia1
- Pain typically begins after completion of activity, but may occur during activity or periods of rest as condition progresses7
- Crepitus upon palpation over lateral condyle3
- Specific swelling over lateral condyle3
- Increased pain after long periods of sitting4
- Pain with running (especially on downhill terrain) and cycling
- Pain with walking and other activities that elicit knee flexion, especially as the condition persists
- Pain with sitting for prolonged periods
Possible Contributing Causes
- Biomechanical abnormalities
- Leg-length discrepancies
- Tensor fasciae latae contracture
- Gluteus maximus contractures
- Hamstring and ...
Log In to View More
If you don't have a subscription, please view our individual subscription options below to find out how you can gain access to this content.
Want remote access to your institution's subscription?
Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus.
AccessPhysiotherapy Full Site: One-Year Subscription
Connect to the full suite of AccessPhysiotherapy content and resources including interactive NPTE review, more than 500 videos, Anatomy & Physiology Revealed, 20+ leading textbooks, and more.
Pay Per View: Timed Access to all of AccessPhysiotherapy
24 Hour Subscription $34.95
48 Hour Subscription $54.95
Pop-up div Successfully Displayed
This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over.
Otherwise it is hidden from view.