- Haemophilus meningitis
- 320 Bacterial meningitis
- 320.0 Hemophilus meningitis
- 321.0 Cryptococcal meningitis
- 320.1 Pneumococcal meningitis
- 320.2 Streptococcal meningitis
- 320.3 Staphylococcal meningitis
- 320.7 Meningitis in other bacterial diseases classified elsewhere
- 320.89 Meningitis due to other specified bacteria
- G00.9 Bacterial Meningitis
- A48.8 Meningitis in other bacterial diseases classified elsewhere
- G00.8 Meningitis due to other specified bacteria
- Infection of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord caused by a spread of bacteria
- Severity and extent causes a wide range of neurologic signs and symptoms, generally non-focal in nature
- Bacterial meningitis is rare
- Infection can result due to the following
- Onset of symptoms is very rapid and considered a medical emergency
- Commonly nosocomial or iatrogenic
- No physical test distinguishes a bacterial from a viral infection; must rely on body fluid cultures
- If a central nervous system infection is suspected, the therapist should seek information regarding a potential source of infection or a condition that pre-disposed the patient to infection
- Bacterial meningitis is caused by a wide range of bacteria
- Most common forms of meningitis include pneumococcal, influenza, and meningococcal worldwide; other bacteria cause meningitis but may be less common in some parts of the world
- Hemophilus meningitis is caused by the Haemophilus influenzae bacteria (Hib)
- Most common form of meningitis
- Acquired most likely following an upper respiratory infection
- Rare; mostly limited to secondary to vaccine
- Approximately 3/100,000 in the United States; 500/100,000 in Africa2
- Flu-like symptoms
- Stiff neck
- Skin rash
- Change in mental status (confusion, delirium)
- Fever or hypothermia
- Impaired heart, lung, liver, kidney function
- Seizure, generalized convulsions
- Sensory deficit/change
- Motor deficit/change
- With increased intracranial pressure, papilledema may develop
- With prolonged infection, cranial nerves may become effected
- Loss of mobility temporarily with permanent loss possible
- Loss of hearing/vestibular function in some cases
- Loss of coordination (fine and gross motor) temporarily with permanent loss possible
- Loss of independence with activities of daily living
- Reduced cognitive function, particularly executive functions
Possible Contributing Causes
- Severe sinus infection
- Cranial or spinal surgery
- Shunt placement
- Open head injury
- Diseases of the middle ear and paranasal sinuses...
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