Skip to Main Content

++

  • Meningitis
  • Bacterial Meningitis

++

  • 320.0 Hemophilus meningitis

++

  • G00.9 Bacterial meningitis, unspecified
  • A48.8 Other specified bacterial diseases
  • G00.8 Other bacterial meningitis

++
++

Description

++

  • A type of bacterial meningitis found in the nose and throat
  • Infection of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord caused by a spread of bacteria
  • Caused by the haemophilus influenza bacteria (Hib)
    • Most common form of meningitis
    • Acquired following an upper respiratory infection

++

Essentials of Diagnosis

++

  • Bacteria contracted by exhaled droplets from an infected adult or child or by the following
    • Head injury
    • Severe local infection
    • Ear infection (otitis media)
    • Nasal sinus infection
  • Hib can enter the bloodstream and cause infection in the meninges or lungs
  • No physical test distinguishes a bacterial from a viral infection; must rely on body fluid cultures
  • If a central nervous system infection is suspected, the therapist should seek information regarding a potential source of infection or a condition that predisposed the patient to infection

++

General Considerations

++

  • Generally, bacterial meningitis is rare; secondary to vaccine
  • Individual may not know they have the bacteria

++

Demographics

++

  • Usually seen in children under 5 years old

++

Signs and Symptoms

++

  • Severity and extent causes a wide range of neurologic signs and symptoms, generally non-focal in nature
  • Flu-like symptoms
  • Pneumonia
  • Swollen throat, difficulty breathing
  • Headache
  • Stiff neck
  • Skin rash
  • Change in mental status (confusion, delirium)
  • Fever or hypothermia
  • Malaise
  • Impaired heart, lung, liver, kidney function
  • Seizure, generalized convulsions
  • Sensory deficit/change
  • Motor deficit/change
  • With increased intracranial pressure, papilledema may develop
  • With prolonged infection, cranial nerves may become affected

++

Functional Implications

++

  • Loss of mobility temporarily with permanent loss possible
  • Loss of hearing/vestibular function in some cases
  • Loss of coordination, fine and gross motor temporarily with permanent loss possible
  • Loss of independence with activities of daily living
  • Reduced cognitive function, particularly executive functions

++

Possible Contributing Causes

++

  • Severe sinus infection
  • HIV/AIDS, immunosuppressive
  • Removal of spleen
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Bone marrow transplant
  • Cranial or spinal surgery
  • Shunt placement
  • Open head injury
  • Dural tears from remote trauma
  • Ruptured brain abscess

++

Differential Diagnosis

++

  • Extrapyramidal rigidity
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Alcohol intoxication or withdrawal
  • Hepatic encephalopathy
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • Meningoencephalitis
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
  • Behçet’s disease

++

Laboratory Tests

++

  • Lab tests for complete blood count, general chemistry panel, ...

Want remote access to your institution's subscription?

Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.

Ok

About MyAccess

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus.

Subscription Options

AccessPhysiotherapy Full Site: One-Year Subscription

Connect to the full suite of AccessPhysiotherapy content and resources including interactive NPTE review, more than 500 videos, Anatomy & Physiology Revealed, 20+ leading textbooks, and more.

$595 USD
Buy Now

Pay Per View: Timed Access to all of AccessPhysiotherapy

24 Hour Subscription $34.95

Buy Now

48 Hour Subscription $54.95

Buy Now

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.