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  • Hip arthritis
  • Hip degenerative joint disease

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  • 715 Osteoarthrosis and allied disorders
  • 715.15 Osteoarthrosis localized primary involving pelvic region and thigh
  • 715.25 Osteoarthrosis localized secondary involving pelvic region and thigh
  • 715.35 Osteoarthrosis localized not specified whether primary or secondary involving pelvic region and thigh
  • 715.9 Osteoarthrosis unspecified whether generalized or localized
  • 715.95 Osteoarthrosis unspecified whether generalized or localized involving pelvic region and thigh

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  • M16.10 Unilateral primary osteoarthritis, unspecified hip
  • M16.7 Other unilateral secondary osteoarthritis of hip
  • M16.9 Osteoarthritis of hip, unspecified

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Description

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  • Most common form of arthritis
  • Degenerative
  • Commonly affects hip and knee joints (weight-bearing joints)
  • May also affect spinal facet joints
  • Associated with increased age, obesity, female sex, race/ethnicity
  • Associated with abnormal loading of joints
  • Characterized by joint pain
  • Arthrosis
  • Osteoarthrosis
  • Polyarthrosis
  • Degenerative joint disease

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Essentials of Diagnosis

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  • Radiography is standard method for diagnosis
  • Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) grade ⩾ 2 (definite radiographic OA)2
  • Osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, sclerosis
  • Cartilage lesions, bone marrow lesions, synovitis, effusion, subchondral bone attrition or sclerosis
  • Erosion of articular cartilage
  • Synovial hyperplasia
  • Fibrosis
  • Inflammatory cell infiltration
  • With or without OA symptoms
  • Conventional radiograph is most commonly used tool for diagnosing OA
  • Diagnosis based on a careful history, physical examination, imaging studies, laboratory examination, exclusion of other possible diseases

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General Considerations

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  • Low bone-mineral density (BMD)
  • Repetitive joint use or loading
  • Joint alignment
  • Leg-length discrepancy (LLD)
  • Bone or joint morphology
  • Calcification (e.g., of the knee meniscus)
  • Bone formation, cyst formation
  • Thickening of subchondral bone plate, osteosclerosis
  • Overall joint dysfunction
  • Joint swelling and inflammation (in severe cases)
  • Joint pain
  • Morning stiffness
  • Long-term disease
  • Secondary problems
    • Muscle atrophy and weakness
    • Bony protrusion or prominence
    • Joint deformity
    • Difficulty walking
    • Difficulty with ADLs

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Demographics

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  • Increased age (middle- to older-age)
  • Women more commonly affected than men
  • African American and Caucasian more commonly affected than other ethnicities
  • May affect approximately 12% of population in U.S. and other developed countries3

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Signs and Symptoms

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  • Joint pain or aching
  • Joint stiffness
  • Muscle weakness
  • Muscle atrophy
  • Crepitus
  • Bony enlargement
  • Limited joint range of motion (ROM)
  • Joint-line tenderness
  • Joint deformity in severe cases
  • Activity limitation

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Functional Implications

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  • Limited mobility
  • Limited household and work-related activity
  • Decreased overall activity and participation

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Possible Contributing Causes

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  • Chronic factors affecting the joint, such as obesity, BMD, LLD
  • ...

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