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  • Lobar pneumonia
  • Bronchial pneumonia
  • Acute interstitial pneumonia
  • Pneumonitis
  • Lung inflammation

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  • 480 Viral pneumonia
  • 481 Pneumococcal pneumonia [streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia]
  • 482 Other bacterial pneumonia
  • 483 Pneumonia due to other specified organism
  • 484 Pneumonia in infectious diseases classified elsewhere
  • 485 Bronchopneumonia, organism unspecified
  • 486 Pneumonia, organism unspecified

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  • J12.0 Adenoviral pneumonia
  • J12.1 Respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia
  • J12.2 Parainfluenza virus pneumonia
  • J12.81 Pneumonia due to SARS-associated coronavirus
  • J12.89 Other viral pneumonia
  • J12.9 Viral pneumonia, unspecified
  • J13 Pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • J15.0 Pneumonia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • J18.1 Lobar pneumonia, unspecified organism

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  • 780.7 Malaise and fatigue
  • 786.0 Dyspnea and respiratory abnormalities
  • 786.05 Shortness of breath

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Description

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  • Inflammation of the lungs (specifically the alveoli)
  • Infection can be bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic
  • Pneumonitis is lung inflammation
  • Pneumonia is pneumonitis with pulmonary consolidation

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Essentials of Diagnosis

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  • Can develop from bronchitis, which is usually after a common cold (viral respiratory infection)
  • Case with mild symptoms is called walking pneumonia

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General Considerations

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  • Influenza is a systemic illness involving the respiratory tract
  • Antibiotics have limited to no role in the treatment of a virus
  • If caused by bacteria, antibiotics will be prescribed
  • Can develop secondary bacterial infection
  • Pneumonia can be life threatening

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Demographics

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  • Infants and young children
  • Elderly or frail

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Signs and Symptoms2

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  • Diarrhea
  • Increased heart beat
  • Low-grade fever
  • Runny nose
  • Malaise
  • Pleurisy
  • Sore throat
  • Cough with productive mucus
  • Edema
  • Chest tightness
  • Rales (crackling sounds in lungs)
  • Swelling of ankles, feet, legs
  • Wheezing
  • Raising shoulders allows increased lung air flow
  • Shortness of breath
  • Tensed muscles from dyspnea

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Functional Implications

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  • Disabling dyspnea when performing simple tasks
    • Arm elevation to reach into cabinet
    • Decreased exercise tolerance
    • Patients with mononucleosis should avoid contact sports for six weeks to avoid splenic rupture
    • Respiratory dysfunction limiting ones ability to function at work

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Possible Contributing Causes

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  • Flu virus
  • Respiratory syncytial virus
  • Rhinovirus
  • Herpes simplex virus
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
  • Smoking
  • Air pollution
  • Allergies
  • Occupations with poor air quality
  • Long-term exposure to lung irritants
  • Environmental irritants
  • Periodontal disease
  • Immunodeficiency disorders

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Differential Diagnosis

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  • Influenza
  • Measles
  • Asthma
  • Chickenpox
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Ludwig’s angina
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Adult cystic fibrosis (CF)
  • Kawasaki disease (KD)
  • Bronchitis
  • Goiter
  • Upper respiratory tract infection
  • Asthma (reversible)
  • Central airway obstruction
  • Lung tumor
  • Tuberculosis

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Laboratory Tests

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  • Viral culture
  • Blood test
  • Nasopharyngeal swab for influenza

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Imaging

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Diagnostic Procedures

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