- Deltoid ligament sprain
- Medial ankle sprain
- Eversion ankle sprain
- 845.01 Sprain of deltoid (ligament), ankle
- S93.429A Sprain of deltoid ligament of unspecified ankle, initial encounter
- Disruption of deltoid ligament complex of the medial ankle
- Deltoid ligament complex
- Restricts medial translation of the calcaneus on the talus
- Can rupture during forced dorsiflexion of the ankle and eversion of the foot
- Can also rupture during excessive external rotation of the talus with or without eversion of the foot
- Commonly injured during a lateral malleolus fracture, where the talus is rapidly displaced against the fibula during excessive dorsiflexion
- Severity of the injury will dictate the signs and symptoms that are observed
- In mild to moderate sprains, pain occurs during passive dorsiflexion and eversion
- In severe sprains, swelling may be present over the posterior to the lateral malleolus, and deep to the medial in the posteromedial aspect of the distal leg
- First step—rule out a fracture or syndesmotic ankle sprain
- Positive posterior drawer test and medial talar tilt test
- Positive Kleiger’s test (external rotation test)
- Ultrasonography, radiography, or MRI may be utilized in select cases1
- Ultrasonography or MRI is recommended following a medial ankle sprain in a patient with chronic ankle instability1
- Radiographs utilized within the constraints of Ottawa Ankle Rules2
- Deltoid ligament complex tears are classified based on the anatomical degree of damage or functional stability found on clinical exam2
- Grade 1: partial microscopic tearing of the ligament, minimal to no loss of function, mild swelling and pain
- Grade 2: partial macroscopic tearing of the ligament with mild to moderate loss of function, moderate swelling/pain/tenderness
- Grade 3: complete rupture with severe loss of function, severe swelling/pain/tenderness
- Functional stability
- Stable: no laxity with talar tilt or anterior drawer testing (Grade I)
- Unstable: laxity with anterior drawer testing (ATFL, Grade II); laxity with both the anterior drawer and talar tilt (ATFL and CF, Grade III)
- Deltoid ligament is made up of two short bands of ligaments that run superficial and deep to the medial capsule of the ankle joint
- May occur with a concomitant syndemosis sprain, lateral malleolus fracture, or chondral lesion
- Medial ankle sprains are not very common. They account for approximately 10% to 15% of all ankle sprains3, 4
- Medial ankle sprains are usually more severe and result in significantly greater time lost to injury than lateral ankle sprains3, 4
- Prevalent in athletes, though does occur in sedentary individuals
- Most common in basketball, soccer, and football athletes5
- Males between 15 and 24 years old have higher rates of ankle sprains than female counterparts; females ...
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