Skip to Main Content

++

  • STORCH syndrome
  • TORCH
  • TORCH complex
  • TORCHES
  • Toxoplasmosis, other, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex Virus
  • Other: coxsackievirus, syphilis, varicella-zoster virus, HIV, and parvovirus B19; Congenital Lyme disease

++

  • 052.0 Postvaricella encephalitis
  • 055.0 Postmeasles encephalitis
  • 056.0 Rubella with neurological complications
  • 090.4 Juvenile neurosyphilis

++

  • A50.40 Late congenital neurosyphilis, unspecified
  • A50.45 Juvenile general paresis
  • B01.11 Varicella encephalitis and encephalomyelitis
  • B05.0 Measles complicated by encephalitis
  • B06.00 Rubella with neurological complication, unspecified

++
++

Description

++

  • Acronym for perinatal infections
    • T: toxoplasmosis
    • O: other infections
    • R: rubella
    • C: cytomegalovirus
    • H(HE): herpes simplex virus 2
    • S: Syphilis
  • Can lead to fetal loss or severe fetal anomalies
  • Congenital syndrome characterized by a variety of central nervous system, growth, cognitive, visual, and auditory deficits
  • Hepatitis B: maternal to fetal during birth, option for Caesarean section to avoid contact
  • Varicella encephalitis and encephalomyelitis

++

Essentials of Diagnosis

++

  • Prenatal viral, bacterial, parasitic infectious exposure resulting in congenital birth defects
  • Passed from mother to fetus in the womb across the placenta or during delivery

++

General Considerations

++

  • Infections that are mild may go unnoticed in a pregnant woman but can have devastating consequences for the unborn child
  • The timing of the prenatal exposure greatly impacts the long-term infant outcome; first trimester exposure is tied to more-severe deficits.
  • There is significant variability in newborn outcomes across different infectious organisms
    • Associated disorders
      • Intrauterine growth retardation resulting in infant being small for gestational age
      • Cognitive impairment ranging from mild deficits to severe mental retardation
      • Visual deficits including chorioretinitis due to central nervous system (CNS) involvement of the second cranial nerve
      • Auditory deficits secondary to eighth cranial nerve involvement
      • Skin lesions, eye lesions, and rash
      • Hepatosplenomegaly
      • Impaired motor development due to damage to the brain while developing
      • Seizures
      • Cardiac defects

++

Demographics

++

  • Overall rate of 17.3 infants per 1000 births receiving antibiotics for suspected neonatal sepsis2
  • Cytomegalovirus: 1 in 150 children is born with congenital CMV disease
    • Approximately 1 of every 5 children born with congenital CMV infection will develop permanent problems (such as hearing loss or developmental disabilities) due to the infection.2
    • 0.3% to 2% of live-born infants contract CMV, making it the most common intrauterine infection.3
    • Syphilis: With untreated early syphilis in pregnant women, 25% of pregnancies result in stillbirth and 14% in neonatal death, an overall perinatal mortality of about 40%.4,5
    • Rubella congenital syndrome is rare, as indicated by an incidence of fewer than 1 person in 2000.6
    • Toxoplasmosis: Approximately 3500 infected children are born in the United States every year, and the risk of transplacental transmission is greatest during the third trimester of pregnancy; international data varies widely.7
    • Herpes simplex: Overall, approximately 2% of women ...

Want remote access to your institution's subscription?

Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.

Ok

About MyAccess

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus.

Subscription Options

AccessPhysiotherapy Full Site: One-Year Subscription

Connect to the full suite of AccessPhysiotherapy content and resources including interactive NPTE review, more than 500 videos, Anatomy & Physiology Revealed, 20+ leading textbooks, and more.

$595 USD
Buy Now

Pay Per View: Timed Access to all of AccessPhysiotherapy

24 Hour Subscription $34.95

Buy Now

48 Hour Subscription $54.95

Buy Now

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.