- S13.4XXA Sprain of ligaments of cervical spine, initial encounter
- S13.8XXA Sprain of joints and ligaments of other parts of neck, initial encounter
- Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD): injury dysfunction and symptoms
- Cervical acceleration-deceleration injury (CAD): mechanism of injury
- Traumatic neck pain from being hit from behind
- Quick movement through an S-curve causing upper cervical flexion and lower cervical hyperextension2
- Post-traumatic mechanism of injury to the head/neck, most commonly secondary to motor vehicle accident3
- Symptoms may be delayed for 24 hours2
- Quebec task force grade levels
- Diagnosis made by clinical examination and patient history
- More common in women than men, possibly from neck muscle strength and stability
- Pain may become chronic if musculature strength not regained
- Women appear to be at greater risk secondary to less stiffness of the cervical structures4
- Neck pain5
- Muscle pain5
- Headaches, 50% to 60%5
- Generalized neck and upper back pain, typically absent of radiculopathy
- Ringing in the ears
- Blurred vision
- Sleep disturbance
- Guarded and limited active motion of the cervical spine
- Hypertonic surrounding musculature
- Compensatory neck motion initiated by global cervical musculature, including sternocleidomastoid and scalenes
- Potential sympathetic symptoms
- Post-traumatic psychosocial impairments
- Difficulty maintaining sustained sitting postures
Possible Contributing Causes
- Occupation that requires prolonged sitting postures including desk work, driving, horseback riding falls, and overhead activities
- Trauma from auto accident, physical abuse, contact sports
- Severe muscle spasm, muscle weakness, or pain upon gentle compression of the cervical spine may indicate fracture1
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- For imaging and surgical consult if fracture/instability is suspected
- For pain medication if self-care measures insufficient
- For psychological consult if post traumatic stress suspected
- Guarded active cervical spine motion secondary to hypertonic musculature
- Hypermobile cervical spine
- Weakness noted of longus coli and longus capitus...
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