Skip to Main Content




Although many different pathogenic agents and processes can affect the liver (Table 14–1), they are generally manifested in individual patients in a limited number of ways that can be assessed by evaluation of some key parameters. Liver disease can be acute or chronic, focal or diffuse, mild or severe, and reversible or irreversible. Most cases of acute liver disease (eg, caused by viral hepatitis) are so mild that they never come to medical attention. Transient symptoms of fatigue, loss of appetite, and nausea are often ascribed to other causes (eg, flu), and minor biochemical abnormalities referable to the liver that would be identified in blood studies are not discovered. The patient recovers without any lasting medical consequences. In other cases of acute liver injury, symptoms and signs are severe enough to call for medical attention. The entire range of liver functions may be affected or only a few, as is the case with liver injury resulting from certain drugs that cause isolated impairment of the liver’s role in bile formation (cholestasis). Occasionally, viral, drug-induced, and other acute liver injury occurs in an overwhelming manner, resulting in massive liver cell death and progressive multiorgan failure. This syndrome of acute liver failure (also referred to as fulminant hepatic failure) carries a high mortality rate; however, in recent years, use of emergency liver transplantation has significantly improved survival.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 14–1Liver diseases.

Liver injury may continue beyond the initial acute episode or may be recurrent (chronic hepatitis). In some ...

Want remote access to your institution's subscription?

Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.


About MyAccess

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus.

Subscription Options

AccessPhysiotherapy Full Site: One-Year Subscription

Connect to the full suite of AccessPhysiotherapy content and resources including interactive NPTE review, more than 500 videos, Anatomy & Physiology Revealed, 20+ leading textbooks, and more.

$595 USD
Buy Now

Pay Per View: Timed Access to all of AccessPhysiotherapy

24 Hour Subscription $34.95

Buy Now

48 Hour Subscription $54.95

Buy Now

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.