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  • The Elbow Joint



  • The Radioulnar Joints

    Structure of Proximal Radioulnar Joint

    Structure of Distal Radioulnar Joint


  • Muscles of the Elbow and Radioulnar Joints


    Characteristics and Functions of Individual Muscles

  • Muscular Analysis of the Fundamental Movements of the Forearm





  • The Wrist and Hand

    Structure of the Wrist (Radiocarpal) Joint

    Movements of the Hand at the Wrist Joint

    Structure and Movements of the Midcarpal and Intercarpal Joints

    Structure of the Carpometacarpal and Intermetacarpal Joints

    Movements of the Carpometacarpal Joint of the Thumb

    Movements of the Carpometacarpal and Intermetacarpal Joints of the Fingers

    Structure of the Metacarpophalangeal Joints

    Movements of the Metacarpophalangeal Joints of the Four Fingers

    Movements of the Metacarpophalangeal Joints of the Thumb

    The Interphalangeal Joints

  • Muscles of the Wrist and Hand


    Characteristics and Functions of Muscles

  • Muscular Analysis of the Fundamental Movements of the Wrist, Fingers, and Thumb

    The Wrist

    The Fingers

    The Thumb

    The Thumb Metacarpal

    The Thumb Phalanges

    Length of Long Finger Muscles Relative to Range of Motion in Wrist and Fingers

    Using the Hands for Grasping

  • Common Injuries of the Forearm, Elbow, Wrist, and Fingers

    Fractures of the Forearm

    Elbow Dislocation and Fracture

    Sprained or Strained Wrist

    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Avulsion Fracture


  • Laboratory Experiences




At the conclusion of this chapter, the student should be able to:


  1. Name, locate, and describe the structure and ligamentous reinforcements of the articulations of the elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand.

  2. Name and demonstrate the movements possible in the joints of the elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand regardless of the starting position.

  3. Name and locate the muscles and muscle groups of the elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand, and name their primary actions as agonists, stabilizers, neutralizers, or antagonists.

  4. Analyze the fundamental movements of the forearm, hand, and fingers with respect to joint and muscle actions.

  5. Describe the common athletic injuries of the forearm, elbow, wrist, and fingers.

  6. Perform an anatomical analysis of the elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand in a motor skill.


In much the same way that the shoulder girdle's cooperation with the shoulder joint contributes to the wide range of motion available to the hand, the cooperative movements of the elbow, radioulnar, and wrist joints contribute to the versatility and precision of its movements. Although the hand is intrinsically skillful, its usefulness is greatly impaired when anything interferes with the motions of the forearm or wrist. Injury to any one of the joints involved makes this painfully obvious to the sufferer.


The Elbow Joint




The elbow is far more complex than the simple hinge joint that it appears to be. The two bones of the forearm attach to the humerus in totally different ways. The humeroulnar joint is indeed a true hinge joint, but the humeroradial joint is far from it. It has been classified as an ...

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