Chapter 6

### Outline

• The Elbow Joint

Structure

Movements

Movements

• Muscles of the Elbow and Radioulnar Joints

Location

Characteristics and Functions of Individual Muscles

• Muscular Analysis of the Fundamental Movements of the Forearm

Flexion

Extension

Pronation

Supination

• The Wrist and Hand

Structure of the Wrist (Radiocarpal) Joint

Movements of the Hand at the Wrist Joint

Structure and Movements of the Midcarpal and Intercarpal Joints

Structure of the Carpometacarpal and Intermetacarpal Joints

Movements of the Carpometacarpal Joint of the Thumb

Movements of the Carpometacarpal and Intermetacarpal Joints of the Fingers

Structure of the Metacarpophalangeal Joints

Movements of the Metacarpophalangeal Joints of the Four Fingers

Movements of the Metacarpophalangeal Joints of the Thumb

The Interphalangeal Joints

• Muscles of the Wrist and Hand

Location

Characteristics and Functions of Muscles

• Muscular Analysis of the Fundamental Movements of the Wrist, Fingers, and Thumb

The Wrist

The Fingers

The Thumb

The Thumb Metacarpal

The Thumb Phalanges

Length of Long Finger Muscles Relative to Range of Motion in Wrist and Fingers

Using the Hands for Grasping

• Common Injuries of the Forearm, Elbow, Wrist, and Fingers

Fractures of the Forearm

Elbow Dislocation and Fracture

Sprained or Strained Wrist

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Avulsion Fracture

Epicondylitis

• Laboratory Experiences

### Objectives

At the conclusion of this chapter, the student should be able to:

1. Name, locate, and describe the structure and ligamentous reinforcements of the articulations of the elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand.

2. Name and demonstrate the movements possible in the joints of the elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand regardless of the starting position.

3. Name and locate the muscles and muscle groups of the elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand, and name their primary actions as agonists, stabilizers, neutralizers, or antagonists.

4. Analyze the fundamental movements of the forearm, hand, and fingers with respect to joint and muscle actions.

5. Describe the common athletic injuries of the forearm, elbow, wrist, and fingers.

6. Perform an anatomical analysis of the elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand in a motor skill.

In much the same way that the shoulder girdle's cooperation with the shoulder joint contributes to the wide range of motion available to the hand, the cooperative movements of the elbow, radioulnar, and wrist joints contribute to the versatility and precision of its movements. Although the hand is intrinsically skillful, its usefulness is greatly impaired when anything interferes with the motions of the forearm or wrist. Injury to any one of the joints involved makes this painfully obvious to the sufferer.

### The Elbow Joint

#### Structure

The elbow is far more complex than the simple hinge joint that it appears to be. The two bones of the forearm attach to the humerus in totally different ways. The humeroulnar joint is indeed a true hinge joint, but the humeroradial joint is far from it. It has been classified as an ...

Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.

Ok

## Subscription Options

### AccessPhysiotherapy Full Site: One-Year Subscription

Connect to the full suite of AccessPhysiotherapy content and resources including interactive NPTE review, more than 500 videos, Anatomy & Physiology Revealed, 20+ leading textbooks, and more.