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  • Kinesiology and Exercise Programs

  • Developing Flexibility

    Types of Stretching

  • Types of Exercise for Muscle Strength

    Concentric Exercise

    Eccentric Exercise

    Isometric Exercise

    Isotonic Exercise

    Isokinetic Exercise

    Plyometric Exercise

    Principles Relating to Muscle Strength and Endurance

    Risk Factors

  • Strength Training

    Core Strengthening

    Upper Body Strengthening

    Lower Body Strengthening

  • Evaluating Exercises and Devices

    Laboratory Experiences




At the conclusion of this chapter, the student should be able to:


  1. Define flexibility, muscular strength, and endurance, and state how each can be developed.

  2. State the principles that should be followed when prescribing or engaging in exercises for flexibility.

  3. Develop an appropriate exercise for improving range of motion in any joint.

  4. Name and describe the four types of exercise programs used for muscle strength and development.

  5. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of various types of muscle strength and endurance programs.

  6. Develop a graded exercise series for strengthening each of three muscle groups. Justify the selection and order of the exercises using the outline for kinesiological analysis.


Kinesiology and Exercise Programs


The objectives of exercise programs are to facilitate musculoskeletal, circulatory, and respiratory adaptations that will make possible increases in strength, flexibility, and work capacity for safer and more enjoyable motion in work, play, and activities of daily living. In the twenty-first-century, exercise in any form has taken on new importance as the population changes. The sharp increase in the rate of obesity and the increase in active life span give new meaning to the idea of exercise for health. Exercise programs are used to ready athletes for competition, curb obesity, reduce falls in the elderly, decrease the incidence of musculoskeletal pain, and for a myriad of other reasons. Health professionals worldwide are sounding the call for an increase in levels of physical activity for all. It is the job of the movement specialist to help provide safe and effective means for exercise enhancement.


The interests of the exercise physiologist and the kinesiologist overlap in the realm of exercise. Both are concerned with the energy, work, and power aspects and the musculoskeletal and neuromuscular dimensions of exercise. They diverge in their concerns with the physiologist's focus on energy sources and demands and the kinesiologist's focus on forces causing the motion and analysis of technique. Knowing what to select for an appropriate conditioning or therapeutic exercise program requires knowledge of both exercise physiology and kinesiology. As might be expected, the discussion in this chapter is limited primarily to the kinesiology of selected exercises—namely, those designed primarily to increase flexibility, develop muscular strength and endurance, and improve core stability. Understanding the demands of a movement will help the individual select appropriate exercises to enhance performance or rehabilitate following an injury.


Exercise for the sake of improving flexibility, strength, and endurance has become a field in its own right. For this reason, a textbook in kinesiology cannot address all ...

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