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CHAPTER NINE. Flaps and Skin Grafts

Among the following, which one best describes the environment needed for a free tissue transfer (a free flap) to survive?

a. A well-vascularized wound bed

b. An adequate arterial inflow and venous outflow

c. A sterile environment

d. An adequate arterial inflow without venous outflow

e. A maximum ratio length to width of 2:1

The Mathes and Nahai classification of muscle flaps describes a type III muscle flap as

a. Composed of only one dominant pedicle

b. Composed of one or more vascular pedicle(s) and minor pedicle(s)

c. Composed of two dominant pedicles

d. Composed of segmental vascular pedicles

e. Composed of one dominant and secondary segmental pedicles

Which of the following best describes a delay phenomenon in a flap?

a. A transposition of a 3 × 3 cm skin paddle with a 45° angle

b. A free latissimus dorsi flap for a scalp defect

c. Insertion of an expander implant under the pectoralis major muscle during breast reconstruction

d. A pedicle TRAM flap after ligation of both deep inferior epigastric arteries 2 weeks earlier

e. A deltopectoral flap performed immediately after a neck mass removal

Which of the following is an indicator of venous congestion?

a. A capillary refill time of 3 seconds

b. A hypothermic flap

c. A hypoperfused flap

d. A pale or light pink flap

e. A swollen bluish flap

Which of the following best describes a split-thickness skin graft (STSG)?

a. A graft composed of epidermis and some dermis

b. A graft composed of only epidermis

c. A graft composed of only dermis

d. A graft that leaves a donor site to be closed primarily

e. A graft that will never contract after being harvested


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