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The ultrasound frequency range used to facilitate tissue repair and wound healing is

a. Less than 20 KHz

b. 40 KHz-3 MHz

c. 3-7 MHz

d. 8-18 MHz

The amount of energy (W) per area of the sound head (cm2) delivered during a treatment time, expressed as W/cm2 is

a. Duty cycle

b. Frequency

c. Voltage

d. Intensity

The formation of gaseous bubbles that implode, thereby releasing pressure that may cause tissue damage and facilitate breakdown of necrotic tissue, is termed

a. Microstreaming

b. Stable cavitation

c. Unstable cavitation

d. Banding

Which of the following parameters is recommended to avoid the thermal effects on tissue when using high-frequency, contact ultrasound?

a. Pulsed mode with 25% duty cycle

b. Maximum of 5 minutes treatment time

c. Water as the conduction medium

d. 1 MHz frequency

Which of the following conditions is an absolute contraindication for the use of noncontact, low-frequency ultrasound?

a. Vasculitis

b. Any painful wound

c. Arterial insufficiency

d. Malignant tissue

Ultrasound is indicated in any of the wound healing phases except

a. Hemostasis

b. Inflammation

c. Proliferation

d. Remodeling

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