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Condition/Disorder Synonyms

  • Cerebral vascular accident

  • Stroke

ICD-9-CM Codes

  • 430 Subarachnoid hemorrhage

  • 431 Intracerebral hemorrhage

  • 432 Other and unspecified intracranial hemorrhage

  • 433 Occlusion and stenosis of precerebral arteries

  • 434 Occlusion of cerebral arteries

  • 434.0 Cerebral thrombosis

  • 434.00 Cerebral thrombosis without cerebral infarction

  • 434.01 Cerebral thrombosis with cerebral infarction

  • 434.1 Cerebral embolism

  • 434.10 Cerebral embolism without cerebral infarction

  • 434.11 Cerebral embolism with cerebral infarction

  • 434.9 Cerebral artery occlusion unspecified

  • 434.90 Cerebral artery occlusion unspecified without cerebral infarction

  • 434.91 Cerebral artery occlusion unspecified with cerebral infarction

  • 435 Transient cerebral ischemia

  • 436 Acute but ill-defined cerebrovascular disease

  • 437 Other and ill-defined cerebrovascular disease

  • 438 Late effects of cerebrovascular disease

ICD-10-CM Codes

  • I63.30 Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of unspecified cerebral artery

  • I63.40 Cerebral infarction due to embolism of unspecified cerebral artery

  • I63.50 Cerebral infarction due to unspecified occlusion or stenosis of unspecified cerebral artery

  • I66.09 Occlusion and stenosis of unspecified middle cerebral artery

  • I66.19 Occlusion and stenosis of unspecified anterior cerebral artery

  • I66.29 Occlusion and stenosis of unspecified posterior cerebral artery

  • I66.9 Occlusion and stenosis of unspecified cerebral artery

Preferred Practice Pattern1

Key Features


  • Results in sudden, specific neurological deficit based on location and extent of ischemia or hemorrhage

  • May occur over seconds, minutes, hours, or few days

  • Symptoms include sensory dysfunction, aphasia, dysarthria, dysphagia, visual field defects, cognitive impairment, and most commonly hemiplegia

Essentials of Diagnosis

  • Brain damage may result in the following changes or dysfunction

    • Motor loss

    • Sensory loss

    • Visual impairment

    • Autonomic dysfunction

    • Perceptual changes

    • Cognitive, personality, behavioral changes

    • Changes in consciousness

    • Communication difficulties

    • Eating, swallowing, bowel and bladder changes

General Considerations2

  • Two major classification groups

    • Ischemic (2 types)

      • Thrombotic: atherosclerotic plaques and hypertension (HTN) produce cerebrovascular accident (CVA) due to plaques that form at the branching and curves of arteries

      • Embolic: an embolus that causes CVA can travel from the heart, internal carotid artery thrombosis, or atheromatous plaque of the carotid sinus; branches of middle cerebral artery (MCA) most commonly affected

    • Hemorrhagic: hypertension (HTN), ruptured saccular aneurysm, or arteriovenous malformation (AVM) can cause a bleed in the brain


  • Largest single cause of neurological disability

  • Approximately 4 million Americans suffer physical impairments and disability from stroke

  • Two-thirds of all strokes occur in individuals aged 65 years or older

    • Risk of stroke doubles every 10 years after age 55

  • Greater incidence in men than women; twice as likely in African Americans vs. Caucasians

  • Cerebral infarction (thrombosis or embolism) is most common form (70% of all strokes), followed by hemorrhages (20%) and unspecified cause (10%)

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