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Condition/Disorder Synonyms

  • DCD

  • Clumsy child syndrome

  • Motor dyspraxia

  • Developmental dyspraxia

  • Sensory integrative dysfunction

  • Disorder of attention, motor and perception

  • Minor coordination dysfunction

ICD-9-CM Code

  • 315.4 Developmental coordination disorder

ICD-10-CM Code

  • F82 Specific developmental disorder of motor function

Preferred Practice Pattern

Key Features

Description

  • Difficulty performing complex gross or fine-motor coordination tasks

Essentials of Diagnosis

  • No cognitive or neurological dysfunction

General Considerations

  • Four criteria

    • Difficulty performing age-appropriate motor skills

    • Child has had sufficient opportunity to attain motor skills

    • No medical reason for motor difficulty

    • Difficulties impact academics or ADLs

Demographics

  • Fifty percent of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) also have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)2,3

  • Affects 5% to 6% of all children4

  • Affects twice as many males as females4

Clinical Findings

Signs and Symptoms

  • Decreased strength

  • Difficulty with coordination

    • Ball skills

      • Catching

      • Throwing

      • Kicking

    • Single-limb stance

    • Jumping

    • Hopping on one foot

    • Skipping

  • Ligamentous laxity

  • Hypotonia 5

  • Soft neurological signs6

  • Atypical gait pattern

Functional Implications

  • Falls or trips often

  • Bumps into objects, other people

  • Difficulty using motor skills in new settings

Possible Contributing Causes

  • Premature birth4

Differential Diagnosis

Means of Confirmation or Diagnosis

Diagnostic Procedures

  • Parent teacher questionnaires: Connors, Burks

  • Psychological testing

  • IQ testing

  • Developmental and psychosocial evaluation

Treatment

Medication

  • None for DCD

  • Medications available for ADHD

    • Methylphenidate drugs

    • Amphetamines

    • Dexmethylphenidate

    • Dextroamphetamine

    • Lisdexamfetamine

Referrals/Admittance

  • School psychologist for behavior therapy

  • Neurologist

  • Occupational therapist

  • Speech therapist

Impairments

  • Difficulty climbing stairs without holding railing

  • Poor abdominal strength

  • Inability to balance on one leg

  • Inability to hop on one foot

  • Inability to kick a rolling ball

  • Inability to catch a ball

Tests and Measures

  • Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

  • Peabody Development Motor Scales-2

  • School function assessment (SFA)10

  • Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2nd edition11

  • Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire12

  • Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition13

Intervention

  • Strengthening

  • Balance training

  • Coordination tasks

  • Sensory integration

  • Motor learning

  • Task-specific ...

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