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Condition/Disorder Synonyms

  • Lobar pneumonia

  • Bronchial pneumonia

  • Acute interstitial pneumonia

  • Pneumonitis

  • Lung inflammation

ICD-9-CM Codes

  • 480 Viral pneumonia

  • 481 Pneumococcal pneumonia [streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia]

  • 482 Other bacterial pneumonia

  • 483 Pneumonia due to other specified organism

  • 484 Pneumonia in infectious diseases classified elsewhere

  • 485 Bronchopneumonia, organism unspecified

  • 486 Pneumonia, organism unspecified

ICD-10-CM Codes

  • J12.0 Adenoviral pneumonia

  • J12.1 Respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia

  • J12.2 Parainfluenza virus pneumonia

  • J12.81 Pneumonia due to SARS-associated coronavirus

  • J12.89 Other viral pneumonia

  • J12.9 Viral pneumonia, unspecified

  • J13 Pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae

  • J15.0 Pneumonia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae

  • J18.1 Lobar pneumonia, unspecified organism

Associated Physical Therapy Diagnoses/Treatment Diagnosis

  • 780.7 Malaise and fatigue

  • 786.0 Dyspnea and respiratory abnormalities

  • 786.05 Shortness of breath

Preferred Practice Patterns1

Key Features


  • Inflammation of the lungs (specifically the alveoli)

  • Infection can be bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic

  • Pneumonitis is lung inflammation

  • Pneumonia is pneumonitis with pulmonary consolidation

Essentials of Diagnosis

  • Can develop from bronchitis, which is usually after a common cold (viral respiratory infection)

  • Case with mild symptoms is called walking pneumonia

General Considerations

  • Influenza is a systemic illness involving the respiratory tract

  • Antibiotics have limited to no role in the treatment of a virus

  • If caused by bacteria, antibiotics will be prescribed

  • Can develop secondary bacterial infection

  • Pneumonia can be life threatening


  • Infants and young children

  • Elderly or frail

Clinical Findings

Signs and Symptoms2

  • Diarrhea

  • Increased heart beat

  • Low-grade fever

  • Runny nose

  • Malaise

  • Pleurisy

  • Sore throat

  • Cough with productive mucus

  • Edema

  • Chest tightness

  • Rales (crackling sounds in lungs)

  • Swelling of ankles, feet, legs

  • Wheezing

  • Raising shoulders allows increased lung air flow

  • Shortness of breath

  • Tensed muscles from dyspnea

Functional Implications

  • Disabling dyspnea when performing simple tasks

    • Arm elevation to reach into cabinet

    • Decreased exercise tolerance

    • Patients with mononucleosis should avoid contact sports for six weeks to avoid splenic rupture

    • Respiratory dysfunction limiting ones ability to function at work

Possible Contributing Causes

  • Flu virus

  • Respiratory syncytial virus

  • Rhinovirus

  • Herpes simplex virus

  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

  • Smoking

  • Air pollution

  • Allergies

  • Occupations with poor air quality

  • Long-term exposure to lung irritants

  • Environmental irritants

  • Periodontal disease

  • Immunodeficiency disorders

Differential Diagnosis

  • Influenza

  • Measles

  • Asthma

  • Chickenpox

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

  • Ludwig's angina

  • Bronchiectasis

  • Adult cystic fibrosis (CF)

  • Kawasaki disease (KD)

  • Bronchitis

  • Goiter

  • Upper respiratory tract infection

  • Asthma (reversible)

  • Central airway obstruction

  • Lung tumor


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