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OBJECTIVES

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When you finish this chapter you should be able to

  • Analyze the mechanical properties of tissue based on the stress–strain curve model.

  • Discuss the five types of tissue loads that can produce stress and strain.

  • Examine the anatomical characteristics of the musculotendinous unit, synovial joint, bone, and nerve.

  • Evaluate how mechanical loads applied to the musculotendinous unit, synovial joint, bone, and nerve produce injury in these structures.

  • Identify and differentiate various injuries to the musculotendinous unit, synovial joint, bone, and nerve tissue.

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KEY TERMS

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Table Graphic Jump Location
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trauma muscle guarding diastasis
load clonic dislocation
stiffness tonic subluxation
stress muscle soreness osteoarthritis
strain tendinitis bursitis
deformation tendon bursae
elasticity crepitus osteoblasts
yield point tendinosis osteoclasts
plastic tenosynovitis closed fracture
creep contusion open fracture
mechanical failure ecchymosis neuropraxia
muscle strain myositis ossificans neuritis
muscle cramps synovial joints referred pain

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CONNECT HIGHLIGHTS

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Visit http://connect.mcgraw-hill.com for further exercises to apply your knowledge:

  • Clinical application scenarios covering the stress–strain curve model, anatomical characteristics, mechanical and tissue loads that produce injury, and identification of various injuries

  • Click-and-drag questions covering the stress–strain curve, anatomical characteristics, mechanical and tissue loads, and various injuries sustained

  • Multiple-choice questions covering the stress–strain curve, anatomical characteristics, mechanical and tissue loads, and various injuries sustained

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INTRODUCTION

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The ability to recognize a specific injury to musculoskeletal and nerve structures and understand those mechanical factors that produce injuries or trauma is essential for the athletic trainer.11 Trauma is defined as a physical injury or wound that is produced by an external or internal force.3 This chapter provides the foundation for the identification, understanding, and management of injuries to be discussed throughout this text. It examines mechanical forces and tissue characteristics of injuries and the classification of these injuries.

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MECHANICAL INJURY

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Newtonian physics maintains that force or mechanical energy is that which changes the state of rest or uniform motion of matter. When a force applied to any part of the body results in a harmful disturbance in function and or structure, a mechanical injury is said to have been sustained.41 Injuries are caused by external forces directed on the body that result in internal alteration in anatomical structures that are of sufficient magnitude to cause damage or destruction to that tissue.33 How the various tissues respond to the application of an external load is determined in large part by the mechanical properties of that tissue.

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9–1 Clinical Application Exercise

The stress–strain curve represents the relationship between various tissue properties when a ligament is stretched.

? How does external stress lead to an ankle sprain in a patient who steps awkwardly off a curb?

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Tissue Properties

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