Skip to Main Content

++

OBJECTIVES

++

When you finish this chapter you should be able to

  • Recognize the legal ramifications of treating a patient with therapeutic modalities.

  • Explain how therapeutic modalities are classified according to the type of energy they produce.

  • Describe the theoretical uses of the various types of modalities.

  • Correctly demonstrate a variety of thermotherapy and cryotherapy techniques.

  • Discuss the physiological basis and therapeutic uses of electrical stimulating currents.

  • Examine the use of ultrasound in an athletic training setting.

  • Describe how massage, traction, and intermittent compression can be used as therapeutic agents.

++

KEY TERMS

++

ischemia

++

conduction

++

convection

++

radiation

++

conversion

++

hunting response

++

cryokinetics

++

amperes

++

ohms

++

voltage

++

watts

++

frequency

++

tetany

++

attenuation

++

piezoelectric effect

++

effective radiating area

++

beam nonuniformity ratio (BNR)

++

coupling medium

++

effleurage

++

petrissage

++

friction

++

tapotement

++

vibration

++

CONNECT HIGHLIGHTS

++

Visit http://connect.mcgraw-hill.com for further exercises to apply your knowledge:

  • Clinical application scenarios covering application of thermotherapy and cryotherapy techniques, use of ultrasound, use of electrical stimulating currents, and the use of massage, traction, and intermittent compression

  • Click-and-drag questions covering thermotherapy and cryotherapy techniques, therapeutic modality nomenclature, and electrical stimulating currents

  • Multiple-choice questions covering legal ramifications of the use of therapeutic modalities, theoretical use of modalities, and physiological uses of therapeutic modalities

  • Picture identification of therapeutic modalities

++

INTRODUCTION

++
++

Most athletic trainers routinely incorporate the use of therapeutic modalities into their rehabilitation programs.12 When used appropriately, therapeutic modalities can be an effective adjunct to various techniques of therapeutic exercise. Rehabilitation protocols and progressions must be based primarily on the physiological responses of the tissues to injury and on an understanding of how various tissues heal. The decisions the athletic trainer makes on how and when therapeutic modalities may best be used should be based on his or her recognition of signs and symptoms as well as some awareness of the time frames associated with the various phases of the healing process. This chapter is an introduction to the therapeutic modalities that an athletic trainer may use: thermotherapy, cryotherapy, electrical stimulating currents, shortwave diathermy, low-level laser therapy, ultrasound, phonophoresis, traction, intermittent compression and massage.

++

LEGAL CONCERNS

++

Therapeutic modalities must be used with the greatest care possible; they should not be used indiscriminately. Specific laws governing the use of therapeutic modalities vary considerably from state to state. The athletic trainer must follow laws that specifically dictate how athletic trainers can use certain therapeutic ...

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.