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OBJECTIVES

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When you finish this chapter you should be able to

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  • Identify the major anatomical components of the ankle and lower leg that are commonly injured.

  • Accurately assess ankle and lower leg injuries.

  • Discuss the etiology, symptoms and signs, and management of injuries occurring to the ankle and lower leg.

  • Develop a rehabilitation plan for various injuries to the ankle and lower leg.

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KEY TERMS

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CONNECT HIGHLIGHTS

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Visit http://connect.mcgraw-hill.com for further exercises to apply your knowledge:

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  • Clinical application scenarios covering assessment of the ankle and lower leg, etiology, symptoms and signs, and management of ankle and lower leg injuries, and rehabilitation for the ankle and lower leg

  • Click-and-drag questions covering structural anatomy of the ankle and lower leg, assessment of ankle and lower leg injuries, and rehabilitation plan for the ankle and lower leg

  • Multiple-choice questions covering anatomy, assessment, etiology, management, and rehabilitation of ankle and lower leg injuries

  • Selection questions covering rehabilitation plan for various injuries to the ankle and lower leg

  • Video identification of special tests for ankle and lower leg injuries, rehabilitation techniques for the ankle and lower leg, taping and wrapping for ankle and lower leg injuries

  • Picture identification of major anatomical components of the ankle and lower leg, rehabilitation techniques of the ankle and lower leg, and therapeutic modalities for management

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INTRODUCTION

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Like the foot, the ankle and lower leg are common sites of injury in the physically active population.88 Ankle injuries, especially to the stabilizing ligaments, are the most frequent injuries in athletes at all levels, the military, and the performing arts. This chapter focuses on traumatic and overuse injuries in the ankle and lower leg.

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ANATOMY OF THE ANKLE AND LOWER LEG

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Bones

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The portion of the lower extremity that lies between the knee and the ankle is defined as the lower leg and contains two bones, the tibia and the fibula. The bones that form the ankle joint (talocrural joint) are the distal portion of the tibia, the distal portion of the fibula, and the talus. The calcaneus also plays a critical role in the function of the ankle joint.

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Tibia
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With the exception of the femur, the tibia is the longest bone in the body. It serves as the principal weight-bearing bone of the leg. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg. The tibia is triangular in its upper two-thirds but is rounded and more constricted in the lower third. The most pronounced change occurs in the lower third of the shaft and produces ...

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