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When you finish this chapter you should be able to

  • Recognize the normal structural and functional knee anatomy.

  • Demonstrate the various ligamentous and meniscal stability tests discussed in this chapter.

  • Explain how knee injuries can be prevented.

  • Compare and contrast male/female differences relative to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries.

  • Discuss etiological factors, symptoms and signs, and management procedures for the injuries to the ligaments and menisci.

  • Identify the various etiological factors, symptoms and signs, and management procedures for injuries that occur in the patellofemoral joint and in the extensor mechanism.

  • Design appropriate rehabilitation protocols for the injured knee.


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patella alta hemarthrosis
patella baja translation
genu valgum iliotibial band syndrome
genu varum  
genu recurvatum  


Visit for further exercises to apply your knowledge:

  • Clinical application scenarios covering assessment and recognition of knee injuries, etiology, symptoms and signs, and management of knee injuries, as well as rehabilitation for the knee

  • Click-and-drag questions covering structural anatomy of the knee, assessment of knee injuries, and rehabilitation plan of the knee

  • Multiple-choice questions covering anatomy, assessment, etiology, management, and rehabilitation of knee injuries

  • Selection questions covering rehabilitation plan for various injuries to the knee

  • Video identification of special tests for the knee injuries, rehabilitation techniques for the knee, and taping and wrapping for knee injuries

  • Picture identification of major anatomical components of the knee, rehabilitation techniques of the knee, and therapeutic modalities for management


Because so many activities place extreme stress on the knee, it is one of the most traumatized joints in the physically active population. The knee is commonly considered a hinge joint because its two principal movements are flexion and extension. However, because rotation of the tibia is an essential component of knee movement, the knee is not a true hinge joint. The stability of the knee joint depends primarily on the ligaments, the joint capsule, and the muscles that surround the joint. The knee is designed primarily to provide stability in weight bearing and mobility in locomotion; however, it is especially unstable laterally and medially.

Muscles and ligaments provide the main source of stability in the knee.



The knee joint complex consists of the femur, the tibia, the fibula, and the patella (Figure 20–1). The distal end of the femur expands and forms the convex lateral and medial condyles, which are designed to articulate with the tibia and the patella. The articular surface of the medial condyle is longer from front to back than is the surface of the ...

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