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OBJECTIVES

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By studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

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  1. Describe the concept of hormone–receptor interaction.

  2. Identify the factors influencing the concentration of a hormone in the blood.

  3. Describe the mechanisms by which hormones act on cells.

  4. Describe the role of the hypothalamus in the control of hormone secretion from the anterior and posterior pituitary glands.

  5. Identify the site of release, stimulus for release, and the predominant action of the following hormones: epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon, insulin, cortisol, aldosterone, thyroxine, growth hormone, estrogen, and testosterone.

  6. Discuss the use of testosterone (and its synthetic analogs) and growth hormone on muscle growth and their potential side effects.

  7. Contrast the role of plasma catecholamines with intracellular factors in the mobilization of muscle glycogen during exercise.

  8. Discuss the four mechanisms by which blood glucose homeostasis is maintained.

  9. Graphically describe the changes in the following hormones during graded and prolonged exercise: insulin, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.

  10. Describe the effect of changing hormone and substrate levels in the blood on the mobilization of free fatty acids from adipose tissue.

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OUTLINE

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  • Neuroendocrinology 93

    • Blood Hormone Concentration 94

    • Hormone–Receptor Interaction 95

  • Hormones: Regulation and Action 98

    • Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland 98

    • Thyroid Gland 101

    • Parathyroid Gland 102

    • Adrenal Gland 102

    • Pancreas 106

    • Testes and Ovaries 106

  • Hormonal Control of Substrate Mobilization during Exercise 111

    • Muscle-Glycogen Utilization 111

    • Blood Glucose Homeostasis during Exercise 114

    • Hormone–Substrate Interaction 120

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KEY TERMS

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acromegaly

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adenylate cyclase

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adiponectin

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adrenal cortex

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adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)

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aldosterone

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alpha receptors

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anabolic steroids

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androgenic steroid

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androgens

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angiotensin I and II

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anterior pituitary

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antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

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beta receptors

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calcitonin

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calmodulin

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catecholamines

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cortisol

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cyclic AMP

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diabetes mellitus

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diacylglycerol

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endocrine glands

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epinephrine (E)

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estrogens

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follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

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G protein

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glucagon

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glucocorticoids

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growth hormone (GH)

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hormones

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hypothalamic somatostatin

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hypothalamus

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incretins

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inositol triphosphate (IP3)

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insulin

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insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)

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leptin

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luteinizing hormone (LH)

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melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

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mineralocorticoids

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neuroendocrinology

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norepinephrine (NE)

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pancreas

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phosphodiesterase

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phospholipase C

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pituitary gland

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posterior pituitary gland

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prolactin

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protein kinase C

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receptors

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