By studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
Describe the concept of hormone–receptor interaction.
Identify the factors influencing the concentration of a hormone in the blood.
Describe the mechanisms by which hormones act on cells.
Describe the role of the hypothalamus in the control of hormone secretion from the anterior and posterior pituitary glands.
Identify the site of release, stimulus for release, and the predominant action of the following hormones: epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon, insulin, cortisol, aldosterone, thyroxine, growth hormone, estrogen, and testosterone.
Discuss the use of testosterone (and its synthetic analogs) and growth hormone on muscle growth and their potential side effects.
Contrast the role of plasma catecholamines with intracellular factors in the mobilization of muscle glycogen during exercise.
Discuss the four mechanisms by which blood glucose homeostasis is maintained.
Graphically describe the changes in the following hormones during graded and prolonged exercise: insulin, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
Describe the effect of changing hormone and substrate levels in the blood on the mobilization of free fatty acids from adipose tissue.
adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
inositol triphosphate (IP3)
insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
posterior pituitary gland