## OBJECTIVES

By studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

1. Explain the basic principles of training: overload, reversibility, and specificity.

2. Discuss the role that genetics plays in determining $V˙O2$ max.

3. Describe the typical change in $V˙O2$ max with endurance-training programs and the effect of the initial (pretraining) value on the magnitude of the increase.

4. Identify typical $V˙O2$ max values for various sedentary, active, and athletic populations.

5. Understand the contribution of heart rate, stroke volume, and the a-v̄O2 difference in determining $V˙O2$ max.

6. Discuss how training increases $V˙O2$ max.

7. Define preload, afterload, and contractility, and discuss the role of each in the increase in the maximal stroke volume that occurs with endurance training.

8. Describe the changes in muscle structure that are responsible for the increase in the maximal a-v̄O2 difference with endurance training.

9. List and discuss the primary changes that occur in skeletal muscle as a result of endurance training.

10. Explain how “high-intensity” endurance training improves acid-base balance during exercise.

11. Outline the “big picture” changes that occur in skeletal muscle as a result of exercise training and discuss the specificity of exercise training responses.

12. List the four primary signal transduction pathways in skeletal muscle.

13. List and define the function of important secondary messengers in skeletal muscle.

14. Outline the signaling events that lead to endurance training-induced muscle adaptation.

15. Discuss how changes in “central command” and “peripheral feedback” following an endurance training program can lower the heart rate, ventilation, and catecholamine responses to a submaximal exercise bout.

16. Describe the underlying causes of the decrease in $V˙O2$ max that occurs with cessation of endurance training.

17. Contrast the role of neural adaptations with hypertrophy in the increase in strength that occurs with resistance training.

18. Identify the changes that occur in skeletal muscle fibers in response to resistance training.

19. Outline the signaling events that lead to resistance training-induced increases in muscle growth.

20. Discuss how detraining following strength training affects muscle fiber size and strength. Explain how retraining affects muscle fiber size and strength.

21. Explain why concurrent strength and endurance training can impair strength gains.

## OUTLINE

• Principles of Training 295

• Specificity 295

• Endurance Training and $V˙O2$ Max 295

• Training Programs and Changes in $V˙O2$ Max 295

• Why Does Exercise Training Improve $V˙O2$ Max? 297

• Stroke Volume 298

• Arteriovenous O2 Difference 299

• Endurance Training: Effects on Performance and Homeostasis 299

• Endurance Training-Induced Changes in Fiber Type and Capillarity 300

• Endurance Training Increases Mitochondrial Content in Skeletal Muscle Fibers 301

• Training-Induced Changes in Muscle Fuel Utilization 302

• Endurance Training Improves Muscle Antioxidant Capacity 304

• Exercise Training Improves Acid-Base Balance during Exercise 304

• Molecular Bases of Exercise Training Adaptation 305