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OBJECTIVES

By studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

  1. Describe what is meant by the terms Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and Adequate Intake (IA), and how they relate to the Daily Value (DV) used in food labeling.

  2. List the six classes of nutrients.

  3. Identify the fat- and water-soluble vitamins.

  4. Describe why there is concern about the levels of intake of calcium, iron, and sodium in terms of health and disease.

  5. Identify the two major classes of carbohydrates, and describe what the glycemic index is.

  6. Identify the recommended changes in fat intake to improve health status.

  7. List the nutrients that should be limited according to the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  8. Identify the five food groups in the U.S. Style Healthy Eating Plan.

  9. Describe the limitation of height/weight tables and the Body Mass Index in determining overweight and obesity.

  10. Describe the two-component model of body composition and the assumptions made about the density values for the fat-free mass and the fat mass.

  11. Explain the principle underlying the measurement of whole-body density with underwater weighing and why one must correct for residual volume.

  12. Explain the principle by which bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) can be used to estimate the fat-free mass.

  13. Explain how a sum of skinfolds can be used to estimate a percentage of body fatness value.

  14. List the recommended percentage of body fatness values for health and fitness for males and females, and explain the concern for both high and low values.

  15. Describe the roles of genetics and environment in the development of obesity.

  16. Describe the pattern of change in body weight and caloric intake over the adult years.

  17. Discuss the changes in body composition when weight is lost by diet alone versus diet plus exercise.

  18. Describe the relationship of the fat-free mass to the BMR.

  19. Define and give an example of thermogenesis.

  20. Describe physical activity recommendations for preventing overweight and obesity, and for the prevention of weight regain in those who were previously obese.

OUTLINE

  • Standards of Nutrition 412

  • Classes of Nutrients 413

    • Water 414

    • Vitamins 414

    • Minerals 414

    • Carbohydrates 418

    • Fats 419

    • Protein 419

  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans 420

    • Healthy Eating Plans 421

    • Evaluating the Diet 422

  • Body Composition 422

    • Methods of Assessing Overweight and Obesity 423

    • Methods of Measuring Body Composition 423

    • Two-Component Model of Body Composition 424

    • Body Fatness for Health and Fitness 427

  • Obesity and Weight Control 428

    • Obesity 429

    • Causes of Obesity 429

  • Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight Control 430

    • Energy Balance 430

    • Diet and Weight Control 431

    • Energy Expenditure and Weight Control 432

KEY TERMS

Adequate Intakes (AIs)

anorexia nervosa

basal metabolic rate (BMR)

bulimia nervosa

cholesterol

Daily Value (DV)

deficiency

Dietary Guidelines for Americans

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)

...

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