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OBJECTIVES

By studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

  1. Design a sport-specific training program based on an analysis of the energy systems utilized by the activity.

  2. Define the terms overload, specificity, and reversibility.

  3. Compare and contrast the use of interval training and continuous training to improve the maximal aerobic power in athletes.

  4. Discuss the differences between training for anaerobic power and training for the improvement of strength.

  5. List the advantages and disadvantages of different equipment types in weight training.

  6. Define delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Outline the factors that contribute to its development.

  7. Discuss the use of static and ballistic stretching to improve flexibility.

  8. Discuss the differences between conditioning goals during (1) the off-season, (2) the preseason, and (3) in-season.

  9. List and discuss several common training errors.

OUTLINE

  • Training Principles 481

    • Overload, Specificity, and Reversibility 481

    • Influence of Gender and Initial Fitness Level 482

    • Influence of Genetics 483

  • Components of a Training Session: Warm-Up, Workout, and Cool Down 483

  • Training to Improve Aerobic Power 485

    • Interval Training 485

    • Long, Slow-Distance Exercise 487

    • High-Intensity, Continuous Exercise 487

    • Altitude Training Improves Exercise Performance at Sea Level 487

  • Injuries and Endurance Training 488

  • Training to Improve Anaerobic Power 489

    • Training to Improve the ATP-PC System 489

    • Training to Improve the Glycolytic System 489

  • Training to Improve Muscular Strength 489

    • Progressive Resistance Exercise 491

    • General Strength-Training Principles 491

    • Free Weights Versus Machines 492

    • Gender Differences in Response to Strength Training 494

  • Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training Programs 494

  • Nutritional Influence on Training-Induced Skeletal Muscle Adaptations 495

    • Carbohydrate Availability in Skeletal Muscle Influences Endurance Training Adaptation 495

    • Protein Availability in Skeletal Muscle Influences Muscle Protein Synthesis Following Exercise 496

    • Supplementation with Mega Doses of Antioxidants 496

  • Muscle Soreness 497

  • Training to Improve Flexibility 499

  • Year-Round Conditioning for Athletes 501

    • Off-Season Conditioning 501

    • Preseason Conditioning 501

    • In-Season Conditioning 502

  • Common Training Mistakes 502

KEY TERMS

delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS)

dynamic stretching

hypertrophy

overtraining

progressive resistance exercise (PRE)

proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)

repetition

rest interval

set

static stretching

tapering

variable-resistance exercise

work interval

INTRODUCTION

Traditionally, coaches and trainers have planned conditioning programs for their teams by following regimens used by teams that have successful win-loss records. This type of reasoning is not sound because win-loss records alone do not scientifically validate the conditioning programs used by the successful teams. In fact, the successful team might be victorious by virtue of its superior athletes and not its outstanding conditioning program. Clearly, the planning of an effective athletic conditioning program is best achieved by the application of proven physiological training principles. ...

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