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INTRODUCTION

Concept: Transfer of learning from one performance situation to another is an integral part of skill learning and performance.

After completing this chapter, you will be able to

  • Define transfer of learning as it applies to the learning of motor skills

  • Discuss why transfer of learning is an important concept for motor learning

  • Discuss two reasons proposed to explain why transfer occurs

  • Define negative transfer and relate it to motor skill learning situations

  • Discuss the difference between symmetric and asymmetric bilateral transfer

  • Discuss hypotheses that attempt to explain why bilateral transfer occurs

APPLICATION

Why do we practice a skill? One reason is to in? crease our capability of performing the skill in a situ? ation requiring it. We want to be able to accomplish specific action goals when we need to, whether we performeverydayskills,workskills,orsportskills.For example,ifyouwereaphysicaltherapistworkingwith the gait problems of a stroke patient, you would want thatpersontobeabletowalkinenvironmentsoutside the clinic. The patient should be able to walk at home, in the workplace, at the grocery store, in the mall, etc. Similarly, if you were an athletic trainer, it would be essential for you to prepare the injured athlete you are rehabilitating to perform his or her sport skills in competition. And if you were a basketball coach, you would want your players to play well in games as well as in practice. Each of these examples involves the concept of transfer of learning, because of the need to transfer learned capabilities in one environment or situation to a different environment or situation. In fact,oneofthegoalsofpracticingaskillisdeveloping thecapabilitytotransferperformanceoftheskillfrom the practice environment to some other environment in which the individual must perform the skill so that he or she can achieve the same action goal. Another concern for the practitioner is whether the learning of a new skill will be facilitated or impeded by skills that have already been acquired. A physical educator mightwonderwhetherlearningtogallopwillinterfere with or facilitate learning to skip or whether learning to throw a baseball will influence learning to bowl a cricket ball, for example. Teachers, coaches, and ther? apists encounter these types of questions frequently.

Application Problem to Solve Select a motor skill that you perform for recreational or sports purposes. When you began learning this skill, what kinds of practice activities did you experi? ence? How well did they prepare you to learn the more complex aspects of this skill? How well did they prepare you to perform this skill in the range of situations and contexts in which you eventually had to perform it, such as in competition or in everyday experiences?

DISCUSSION

Transfer of learning is one of the most universally applied principles of learning in education, sports, dance,andrehabilitation.Itrestsonthesimpleprem? isethatallnew learning occurs against the backdrop of prior learning. Consequently, prior learning can facilitate, impede, or have no effect on new learn? ing. In educational systems, transfer of learning is an important part ...

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