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Concept: Augmented feedback provides information that can facilitate skill learning.

After completing this chapter, you will be able to

  • Distinguish between task-intrinsic feedback and augmented feedback as they relate to performing a motor skill

  • Define KR and KP and give examples of each

  • Describe skill learning conditions in which augmented feedback would or would not influence learning

  • Compare and contrast quantitative and qualitative augmented feedback

  • Describe situations in which various types of augmented feedback, such as video replay, movement kinematics, and biofeedback, would be effective for facilitating skill learning

  • Identify situations in which concurrent augmented feedback would be beneficial or detrimental to skill learning

  • Describe two time intervals associated with the provision of terminal augmented feedback during practice and how their lengths and the activity during each influence skill learning

  • Describe various ways to reduce the frequency of giving augmented feedback as ways to facilitate skill learning


Think about a time when you were beginning to learn a new physical activity. How much success did you experience on your first few attempts? Most likely, you were not very successful. As you practiced, you probably had many questions that you needed someone to answer to help you better understand what you were doing wrong and what you needed to do to improve. Although you may have been able to answer many of your questions on your own as you continued to try different things while you practiced, you found that getting an answer from the instructor saved you time and energy.

This situation is an example of what we discussed in chapter 12 as typical in the early stage of learning a skill, or relearning a skill following an injury or illness. The significance of this example is that it points out that an important role played by the practitioner is to give augmented feedback to the learner to facilitate the skill acquisition process.

Consider the following situations. Suppose that you are teaching a golf swing or fitness activity to a class, helping a new student athletic trainer to tape an ankle, or working in a clinic with a patient learning to walk with an artificial limb. In each situation, the people practicing these skills can make many mistakes and will benefit from receiving augmented feedback. When they make mistakes, which they do in abundance when they are beginners, how do you know which mistakes to tell them to correct on subsequent attempts? If you had a video camera available, would you video them and then let them watch their own performances? Or would it be even more beneficial to take the videos and have them analyzed so that you could show them what their movements looked like kinematically? There are many ways to provide augmented feedback. But before you use any one of these, you should know how to implement that method most effectively and when ...

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