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INTRODUCTION

What you will learn in this lesson:

  • to conjugate and use more irregular verbs in the present tense

  • days, months, and dates

  • to form the imperative (command forms)

  • vocabulary related to a physical exam

  • to conduct a physical exam in Spanish

  • vocabulary related to a neurological exam (in the ER)

  • to conduct a neurological exam in Spanish

The goal of this lesson is to be able to use the command form and thus give instructions and conduct a general physical and neurological exam.

IRREGULAR VERBS IN THE PRESENT TENSE

Before learning the fairly simple principles that enable you to form commands (called the imperative mood), let’s just be totally certain that the stems, roots, or bases of the regular verbs in the present tense are deeply ingrained in your cerebro. From there, we will move on to the irregular verbs in the present tense, which will, in turn, directly lead to the formation of the imperative. From this, you will be able to instruct your patients with ease during any physical exam.

Recuerden (Remember): regular verb endings in the present tense

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tomar (to drink, to take)

comer (to eat)

vivir (to live)

tomo

tomamos

como

comemos

vivo

vivimos

tomas

comes

vives

toma

toman

come

comen

vive

viven

Now let’s review two commonly used irregular verbs:

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estar (to be)

ser (to be)

estoy

estamos

soy

somos

estás

eres

está

están

es

son

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Estar

Ser

Location

Permanent condition, characteristic, or identifier

La mesa está en el piso.

Juan está en Arizona.

Yo soy doctor.

Santa Claus es gordo.

Temporary state or condition

José está enfermo.

Ella es americana.

Yo estoy contenta.

José es de México.

La sopa está caliente.

There are some irregular verbs that are quite simple: they only change in the yo form. The conjugation is actually quite regular within its irregularity. Just note the letter “g” in the yo conjugation. Fortunately, the rest of the verb is conjugated exactly as if it were regular (except in oír and decir, tener and venir, which are only slightly different). Note the following infinitives and their first-person singular or yo forms.

Also, once you have learned the forms of some basic irregular verbs, you actually have learned many other verbs as well (for example, poner: componer, reponer, suponer; decir: contradecir, maldecir; traer: contraer, distraer). Examine the following infinitives and their irregularities in the present tense, especially in the yo or first-person singular form.

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