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I greatly appreciate the loyalty that the numerous faculty members, students and other professionals have shown this work over the years. Conversations with many of you have continued to generate ideas to improve and advance the presentation of the content which I continue to incorporate while attempting to maintain the successful presentation approach the late Dr. Clem Thompson established from 1961 through 1989. I first used this book as an undergraduate and later in my teachings over the years. Having developed great respect for this text and Dr. Thompson’s style, it is my intention to continue to preserve the effectiveness of this time-honored text, while adding material pertinent to the professions working with today’s physically active population. I have attempted to maintain and improve clarity while continuing with a concise, simple, and straightforward presentation method. I have drawn upon my career experiences, both as a clinician and an educator, to assist in this process and sincerely hope that this approach is beneficial to those who use this text.

This text, now in its 73rd year, has undergone many revisions over the years. My goal continues to be making the material as applicable as possible to physical activity and to make it more understandable and easier to use for the student and professional. While reading this text, I challenge kinesiology students and professionals to immediately apply the content to physical activities with which they are individually familiar. I hope that the reader will simultaneously palpate his or her own moving joints and contracting muscles to gain application. Concurrently, I encourage readers to palpate the joints and muscles of colleagues to gain a better appreciation of the wide range of normal anatomy and, when possible, appreciate the variation from normal found in injured and pathological musculoskeletal anatomy. Additionally, with the tremendous growth of information and media available via the Internet and other technological means, I encourage careful and continuous exploration of these resources. These resources should be helpful, but must be reviewed with a critical eye, as all information should be. I also encourage you to reach out to me with questions, concerns and suggestions you may have regarding the content and presentation style and I will do my best to respond.


This text is designed for students in an undergraduate structural kinesiology course after completing courses in human anatomy and physiology. While primarily utilized in physical education, human performance, movement science, exercise science, athletic training, physical therapy and massage therapy curriculums, it is often used as a continuing reference by other clinicians and educators in addressing musculoskeletal concerns of the physically active. Applied kinesiologists, athletic trainers, athletic coaches, physical educators, physical therapists, occupational therapists, health club instructors, strength and conditioning specialists, personal trainers, massage and manual therapists, physicians and others who are responsible for evaluating, diagnosing, improving and maintaining the muscular strength, endurance, flexibility and overall health of individuals will benefit from this text.

With the ever-continuing growth in the number of participants of all ages in a spectrum of physical activity, it is imperative that medical, health, fitness and education professionals involved in providing instruction and information to the physically active be correct and accountable for the teachings that they advance. The variety of exercise machines, techniques, strengthening and flexibility programs, and training programs is continuously expanding and changing, but the musculoskeletal system is constant in its design and architecture. Regardless of the goals sought or the approaches used in exercise activity, the human body is the basic factor and must be thoroughly understood and considered to maximize performance capabilities and minimize undesirable results. Most advances in kinesiology and exercise science continue to result from a better understanding of the body and how it functions. I believe that an individual in this field can never learn enough about the structure and function of the human body and that this is typically best learned through practical application.

Those who are charged with the responsibility of providing assessment, examination, diagnosis, instruction and consultation to the physically active will find this text a helpful and valuable resource in their never-ending quest for knowledge and understanding of human movement.

New to this edition

A very careful review of the entire text including all figures and tables has been conducted with the intent of simplifying and clarifying for better understanding when possible. Additional terms, content and concepts in select cases have been added. These include body positions, open vs. close packed joint positions, concave-convex rule, Lombard’s paradox and a lever terminology table. Chapters 4 through 11 now have a table detailing how to locate and palpate the key bony and joint landmarks. The labeling and captions in many figures have been enhanced with further details. Terms for the “peroneal” muscles and nerves have been changed to more current international term fibular or fibularis. In many cases fibularis is directly followed by peroneal in parenthesis to avoid confusion. Further details on the plantaris muscle have also been added. Additional references have been added along with some revisions and additions to the review and laboratory exercises, and end-of-chapter worksheets. Additional questions and exercises will continue to be added to Connect. Finally, a few new terms have been added to the Glossary.


The 21st edition of Manual of Structural Kinesiology is now available online with Connect, McGraw-Hill Education’s integrated assignment and assessment platform. Connect also offers SmartBook® 2.0 for the new edition, which is the first adaptive reading experience proven to improve grades and help students study more effectively. All of the title’s website and ancillary content are also available through Connect, including:

  • Downloadable PowerPoint presentations

  • Image bank

  • Test bank questions

  • End-of-chapter exercise and worksheet answers

  • Student Success Strategies


I am very appreciative of the numerous comments, ideas, and suggestions provided by reviewers. These reviews have been a most helpful guide in this revision and the suggestions have been incorporated to the extent possible when appropriate. These reviewers are:

  • Tammy Bovee, Northwest Christian University

  • Kristin Heumann, Colorado Mesa University

  • Jeffrey Lowes, Liberty University

  • Jim Romagna, University of Dubuque

  • Eric Sorenson, Azusa Pacific University

  • Ron Walker, The University of Tulsa

  • Henry Wang, Ball State University

  • Amanda Wooldridge, Montgomery County Community College

I would like to especially thank the kinesiology, exercise science and athletic training students and faculty of the University of West Alabama for their suggestions, advice and input throughout this revision. Their assistance and suggestions have been very helpful. I am particularly grateful to Britt Jones of Livingston, Alabama, for his outstanding photography. I also acknowledge John Hood and Lisa Floyd of Birmingham and Livingston, Alabama, respectively, for the fine photographs. Special thanks to the late Linda Kimbrough of Birmingham, Alabama, for her superb illustrations and insight. I appreciate the models for the photographs, Audrey Crawford, Fred Knighten, Darrell Locket, Amy Menzies, Matthew Phillips, Emma Powell, Jay Sears, Marcus Shapiro, David Whitaker and Timoya Williamson. My thanks also go to Katie Roman and Erika Lo, and the McGraw-Hill staff who have been most helpful in their assistance and suggestions in preparing the manuscript for publication.

R. T. Floyd



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