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INTRODUCTION

Objectives

  • To review the anatomy of the skeletal system

  • To review and understand the terminology used to describe body part locations, reference positions and anatomical directions

  • To review the planes of motion and their respective axes of rotation in relation to human movement

  • To describe and understand the various types of bones and joints in the human body and their functions, features and characteristics

  • To describe and demonstrate the joint movements

Kinesiology may be defined as the study of the principles of anatomy (active and passive structures), physiology, and mechanics in relation to human movement. The emphasis of this text is structural kinesiology—the study of muscles, bones, and joints as they are involved in the science of movement. To a much lesser degree, certain physiological and biomechanical principles are addressed to enhance the understanding of the structures discussed.

Bones vary in size and shape, which factors into the amount and type of movement that occurs between them at the joints. The types of joint vary in both structure and function. Muscles also vary greatly in size, shape and structure from one part of the body to another.

Anatomists, athletic trainers, physical therapists, occupational therapists, physicians, nurses, massage therapists, coaches, strength and conditioning specialists, performance enhancement specialists, personal trainers, physical educators and others in health-related fields should have an adequate knowledge and understanding of all the large muscle groups so they can teach others how to strengthen, improve and maintain optimal function of the human body. This knowledge forms the basis of exercise programs followed to strengthen and maintain all the muscles. In most cases, exercises that involve the larger primary movers also involve the smaller muscles, however, in certain instances more detailed programs are needed to address certain muscles.

More than 600 muscles are found in the human body. In this book, an emphasis is placed on the larger muscles that are primarily involved in movement of the joints. Details related to many of the small muscles located in the hands, feet and spinal column are provided to a lesser degree.

Fewer than 100 of the largest and most important muscles, primary movers, are considered in this text. Some small muscles in the human body, such as the multifidus, plantaris, scalenus and serratus posterior, are omitted because they are exercised with other larger primary movers. In addition, most small muscles of the hands and feet are not given the full attention provided to the larger muscles. Many small muscles of the spinal column, and the facial muscles, are beyond the scope of this text, and are not considered in full detail.

Kinesiology students frequently become so engrossed in learning individual muscles that they lose sight of the total muscular system. They miss the “big picture”—that muscle groups move joints in given movements necessary for bodily action and skilled performance. Although it is ...

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