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APPENDIX 1

Range of motion for diarthrodial joints of the body

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Joint

Type

Motion

Range

Sternoclavicular

Arthrodial (sellar, according to some authorities)

Protraction

Moves anteriorly 15°

Retraction

Moves posteriorly 15°

Elevation

Moves superiorly 45°

Depression

Moves inferiorly 5°

Upward rotation

45°

Downward rotation

Acromioclavicular

Arthrodial

Protraction-retraction

20°–30° rotational and gliding motion

Elevation-depression

20°–30° rotational and gliding motion

Upward rotation-downward rotation

20°–30° rotational and gliding motion

Scapulothoracic

Not a true synovial joint, all movement totally dependent upon AC and SC joints

Abduction-adduction

25° total range

Upward rotation-downward rotation

60° total range

Elevation-depression

55° total range

Glenohumeral

Enarthrodial

Flexion

90°–100°

Extension

40°–60°

Abduction

90°–95°

Adduction

0° prevented by trunk, 75° anterior to trunk

Internal rotation

70°–90°

External rotation

70°–90°

Horizontal abduction

45°

Horizontal adduction

135°

Elbow (ulnohumeral and radiohumeral)

Ginglymus

Extension

Flexion

145°–150°

Radioulnar

Trochoid

Supination

80°–90°

Pronation

70°–90°

Wrist (primarily radiocarpal)

Condyloid

Flexion

70°–90°

Extension

65°–85°

Abduction

15°–25°

Adduction

25°–40°

Thumb carpometacarpal

Sellar

Flexion

15°–45°

Extension

0°–20°

Adduction

Abduction

50°–70°

Thumb metacarpophalangeal

Ginglymus

Extension

Flexion

40°–90°

Thumb interphalangeal

Ginglymus

Flexion

80°–90°

Extension

2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpophalangeal joints

Condyloid

Extension

0°–40°

Flexion

85°–100°

Abduction

Variable 10°–40°

Adduction

Variable 10°–40°

2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th proximal interphalangeal joints

Ginglymus

Flexion

90°–120°

Extension

2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th distal interphalangeal joints

Ginglymus

Flexion

80°–90°

Extension

Atlantooccipital

Condyloid

Flexion

20°

Extension

10°

Lateral flexion

Atlantoaxial

Trochoid

Flexion

Extension

10°

Rotation unilaterally

40°

Cervical C2-C7

Arthrodial

Flexion

45°

Extension

45°

Lateral flexion

45°

Rotation unilaterally

60°

Thoracic

Arthrodial

Flexion

30°–35°

Extension

20°–25°

Lateral flexion

25°–30°

Rotation unilaterally

30°–35°

Lumbar

Arthrodial

Flexion

80°

Extension

20°–30°

Lateral flexion

35°

Rotation unilaterally

45°

Hip (acetabulofemoral)

Enarthrodial

Flexion

130°

Extension

30°

Abduction

35°

Adduction

0°–30°

External rotation

50°

Internal rotation

45°

Knee (tibiofemoral) For internal and external rotation to occur, the knee must be flexed 20° or more

Ginglymus (trochoginglymus)

Extension

Flexion

140°

Internal rotation

30°

External rotation

45°

Ankle (talocrural)

Ginglymus

Plantar flexion

50°

Dorsal flexion

15°–20°

Transverse tarsal (talonavicular and calcaneocuboid) and subtalar (talocalcaneal)

Arthrodial

Inversion

20°–30°

Eversion

5°–15°

Great toe metatarsophalangeal

Condyloid

Flexion

45°

Extension

70°

Abduction

Variable 5°–25°

Adduction

Variable 5°–25°

Great toe interphalangeal

Ginglymus

Flexion

90°

Extension

2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th metatarsophalangeal joints

Condyloid

Flexion

40°

Extension

40°

Abduction

Variable 5°–25°

Adduction

Variable 5°–25°

2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th proximal interphalangeal joints

Ginglymus

Flexion

35°

Extension

2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th distal interphalangeal joints

Ginglymus

Flexion

60°

Extension

30°

APPENDIX 2

Commonly used exercises for strengthening selected muscles

Some exercises may be more or less specific for certain muscles. In some cases, certain exercises are designed to emphasize specific portions of a particular muscle more than other portions. Some exercises may be modified slightly to further emphasize or deemphasize certain muscles or portions of muscles. ...

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